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T. 23 Pa.C.S.A., Pt. VI, Ch. 52, Refs & Annos

Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes and Consolidated StatutesTitle 23 Pa.C.S.A. Domestic Relations

Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes and Consolidated Statutes
Title 23 Pa.C.S.A. Domestic Relations
Part VI. Children and Minors
Chapter 52. Uniform Child Abduction Prevention
T. 23 Pa.C.S.A., Pt. VI, Ch. 52, Refs & Annos

Footnotes

See David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer & Andrea J. Sedlak, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Children Abducted by Family Members: National Estimate and Characteristics (Oct. 2002).
International Child Abduction Remedies Act, 42 U.S.C. § 11601(a)(1)(“The Congress makes the following findings: (1) The international abduction or wrongful retention of children is harmful to their well-being ... ”). See also Dorothy S. Huntington, Parental Kidnapping: A New Form of Child Abuse, available at http: //www.hiltonhouse.com/articles/child_abuse-huntington.txt (characterizing child abduction as abuse).
America's Hidden Crime: When the Kidnapper is Kin 10-11 (Polly Klaas Foundation 2004). See also Janet R. Johnston et al., Early Identification of Risk Factors for Parental Abduction (OJJDP March 2001)(indicating that men are more likely to abduct before an order is entered while women are more likely to abduct after a child custody determination).
9 Unif. L. Ann. Part I 115 (1988).
Pub. L. No. 96-611, note 7 to 28 U.S.C. § 1738A.
28 U.S.C. Section 1738A(c).
28 U.S.C.A. Section 1738A(g).
9 Unif. L. Ann. Part I 657 (1999).
Missing Children Act, 28 U.S.C. § 534 (1982); Missing Children Search Assistance Act and the National Child Search Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. § 5779 & § 5780 (1990); and the Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act of 2003, Pub. L. 108-21, 117 Stat. 650 (AMBER Alert Program).
See International Parental Kidnapping Crime Act (IPKCA), 18 U.S.C. § 1204; The Fugitive Felon Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1073; and The Extradition Treaties Interpretation Act of 1998, 18 U.S.C. § 3181.
Unlawful Flight to Avoid Prosecution, 18 U.S.C. § 1204; The Fugitive Felon Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1073. When enacting the Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act, Congress declared that the Unlawful Flight to Avoid Prosecution provision applies to cases involving parental kidnapping and interstate or international flight to avoid prosecution. Pub. L. No. 96-611, 10(a).
Appendix A. Citation List of State Parental Kidnapping Statutes, National Clearinghouse for the Defense of Battered Women, The Impact of Parental Kidnapping Laws and Practice on Domestic Violence Survivors 32 (2005).
See The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, 51 Fed. Reg. § 10494 et seq. (1986); the International Child Abduction Remedies Act (ICARA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 11601-11610. For a current list of United States treaty partners, visit www.travel.state.gov/family/abduction/hague_issues/hague_issues _1487.html.
See Ark. Stat. Ann. § 9-13-401-407 (2005); Cal. Fam. Code § 3048 (2004); Tex. Fam. Code § 153.501-§ 153.503 (2003).
See Fla. Stat. § 61.45 (2005); Or. Rev. Stat. § 109.035 (2005).
T. 23 Pa.C.S.A., Pt. VI, Ch. 52, Refs & Annos, PA ST T. 23 Pa.C.S.A., Pt. VI, Ch. 52, Refs & Annos
Current through the end of the 2023 Regular Session. Some statute sections may be more current, see credits for details.
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