12 CRR-NY 23-1.21NY-CRR

12 CRR-NY 23-1.21
12 CRR-NY 23-1.21
23-1.21 Ladders and ladderways.
(a) Approval required.
Any metal or fiberglass ladder which is 10 feet or more in length shall be approved. Any other ladder not named or described in this Part (rule) shall not be used unless approved.
(b) General requirements for ladders.
(1) Strength. Every ladder shall be capable of sustaining without breakage, dislodgment or loosening of any component at least four times the maximum load intended to be placed thereon.
(2) Opaque protective coatings prohibited. The use of an opaque protective coating on any ladder is prohibited.
(3) Maintenance and replacement. All ladders shall be maintained in good condition. A ladder shall not be used if any of the following conditions exist:
(i) If it has a broken member or part.
(ii) If it has any insecure joints between members or parts.
(iii) If it has any wooden rung or step that is worn down to three-quarters or less of its original thickness.
(iv) If it has any flaw or defect of material that may cause ladder failure.
(4) Installation and use.
(i) Any portable ladder used as a regular means of access between floors or other levels in any building or other structure shall be nailed or otherwise securely fastened in place. Such a ladder shall extend at least 36 inches above the upper floor, level or landing or handholds shall be provided at such upper levels to afford safe means of access to or egress from the ladder. Such a ladder shall be inclined a maximum of three inches for each foot of rise.
(ii) All ladder footings shall be firm. Slippery surfaces and insecure objects such as bricks and boxes shall not be used as ladder footings.
(iii) A leaning ladder shall be rigid enough to prevent excessive sag under expected maximum loading conditions.
(iv) When work is being performed from ladder rungs between six and 10 feet above the ladder footing, a leaning ladder shall be held in place by a person stationed at the foot of such ladder unless the upper end of such ladder is secured against side slip by its position or by mechanical means. When work is being performed from rungs higher than 10 feet above the ladder footing, mechanical means for securing the upper end of such ladder against side slip are required and the lower end of such ladder shall be held in place by a person unless such lower end is tied to a secure anchorage or safety feet are used.
(v) The upper end of any ladder which is leaning against a slippery surface shall be mechanically secured against side slip while work is being performed from such ladder.
(5) Wooden ladder rungs.
(i) Round ladder rungs shall be not less than one and one-eighth inches in diameter and oval rungs shall be of equal strength. The tenons of rungs shall be not less than seven-eighths inch in diameter. All tenons shall fit tightly into holes which shall either extend through the side rails or be bored so as to give at least thirteen-sixteenths inch of bearing to the tenons. In through-bore construction, the tenons shall be flush with the outside rail surface of the ladder. All tenon holes shall be located on the center lines of the wide faces of the side rails. The shoulders of each rung shall fit firmly against the side rails and the tenons secured in place with nails or the equivalent to prevent the tenons from turning.
(ii) Rung spacing shall be uniform and shall be not less than 12 inches nor more than 14 inches, center to center.
(6) Ladder splicing. Ladders shall not be spliced to increase their length except that extension pieces may be spliced to the upper ends of ladders for use as handholds. Such extension pieces shall not bear against the ladder supporting object or structure.
(7) Limited use of metal ladders. Metal ladders shall not be used or placed in any location where they may come into contact with any energized electric power line, power facility or any exposed electrical parts of apparatus or equipment.
(8) Spreaders. All ladders with spreading bases, such as step and trestle ladders, shall be equipped with locking type spreaders to hold such bases rigid when in the open position.
(9) Placement of ladders in door openings. Ladders shall not be placed in door openings unless the doors are securely fastened open, closed and locked or otherwise effectively guarded against swinging.
(10) Prohibited types of ladders. The use of single pole (scaling) ladders or rail type ladders where the rungs or cleats are attached across the pole or rail is prohibited.
(c) Single ladders.
(1) Length. Rung or cleat type ladders consisting of a single section shall not exceed 30 feet in length.
(2) Cleat type ladders.
(i) Materials. Wood used in the construction of cleat type ladders shall be thoroughly seasoned, free from sharp edges and splinters and shall be sound. The slope of the grain of side rails and cleats shall be no greater than one in 15. Wood containing knots which intersect the narrow faces of cleats and side rails shall not be used. Wood containing knots which intersect the wide faces of cleats may be used provided such knots are less than one-quarter inch in diameter. Wood containing knots which intersect the wide faces of side rails may be used providing such knots are less than one-half inch in diameter, are located at least one-half inch back from the edges of the rails and are not more frequent than one knot in every three feet of rail length.
(ii) Construction.
(a) Cleats. The minimum size of cleats shall be three-quarter inch by three inches for cleat lengths up to and including 20 inches and three-quarter inch by three and three-quarter inches for cleat lengths up to and including 30 inches. Cleats shall not exceed 30 inches in length and the maximum vertical spacing between cleats measured along the side rails shall not be less than 12 inches nor greater than 14 inches, center to center. Cleats shall be set into the side rails one-half inch with a snug fit or they shall be braced by filler blocks between the cleats,
(b) Side rails. The minimum size of side rails shall be one and five-eighths inches by three and five-eighths inches for ladders up to and including 19 feet in length and one and five-eighths inches by five and five-eighths inches for ladders greater than 19 feet in length.
(d) Extension ladders and sectional ladders.
(1) Length. Extension ladders shall consist of not more than three sections and shall not exceed 60 feet in length when fully extended. The maximum working length from an extension ladder shall be the length of the ladder minus the minimum overlap. Minimum overlaps shall be as follows:
Length of Ladder in FeetMinimum Overlap in Feet
Up to and including 363
Over 36 up to and including 484
Over 48 up to and including 605
(2) Adjustment guides. The adjustment guides of extension ladders shall be so attached to the rails as to prevent the upper sections from tipping or falling out while in use or during adjustment. Each upper section of any extension ladder when extended shall be locked in place by two automatic positive acting locks.
(e) Stepladders.
(1) Length. Stepladders with side rails exceeding 20 feet in length shall not be used.
(2) Bracing. Such bracing as may be necessary for rigidity shall be provided for every stepladder. When in use every stepladder shall be opened to its full position and the spreader shall be locked.
(3) Stepladder footing. Standing stepladders shall be used only on firm, level footings. When work is being performed from a step of a stepladder 10 feet or more above the footing, such stepladder shall be steadied by a person stationed at the foot of the stepladder or such stepladder shall be secured against sway by mechanical means.
(4) Prohibited use. Stepladders shall not be used as supports for scaffold planking.
(5) Stepladder construction.
(i) Width. The minimum clear width between side rails at the top step of a stepladder shall be 12 inches and such width shall increase a minimum of one inch per foot of length between the top and bottom of the rails.
(ii) Tread depth. The depth of the steps or treads of any stepladder shall be not less than three inches.
(iii) Pail shelf. A pail shelf, if provided on a stepladder, shall be designed to fold completely within the ladder.
(iv) Metal ladder steps. Metal ladder steps of any stepladder shall be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant materials or otherwise constructed or treated to minimize slipping.
(f) Ladderways.
After June 1, 1972, any ladderway exceeding 70 feet in height shall be equipped with rest platforms spaced at intervals not exceeding 35 feet. Where ladders are used in series and where a danger of falling material or debris exists, such ladders shall be staggered, offset or so located as to provide protection from such danger.
12 CRR-NY 23-1.21
Current through April 15, 2021
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