RULE 2-510. SUBPOENAS--COURT PROCEEDINGS AND DEPOSITIONS
West's Annotated Code of MarylandMaryland Rules
MD Rules, Rule 2-510
RULE 2-510. SUBPOENAS--COURT PROCEEDINGS AND DEPOSITIONS
(3) Except as otherwise permitted by law, a subpoena may not be used for any other purpose. If the court, on motion of a party or on its own initiative, after affording the alleged violator an opportunity for a hearing, finds that a person has used or attempted to use a subpoena or a copy or reproduction of a subpoena form for a purpose other than one allowed under this Rule, the court may impose an appropriate sanction, including an award of a reasonable attorney's fee and costs, the exclusion of evidence obtained as a result of the violation, and reimbursement of any person inconvenienced for time and expenses incurred.
(3) An attorney of record in a pending action who is a registered user under Rule 20-101 may obtain from the clerk through MDEC, for use in that action, an electronic version of a blank form of subpoena containing the clerk's signature and the seal of the court, which the attorney may download, print, and fill in before service.
Committee note: This Rule does not apply to subpoenas issued under Code, Courts Article, Title 9, Subtitle 4 (Maryland Uniform Interstate Depositions and Discovery Act) requiring attendance at a deposition in this State. For subpoenas issued under that Act in conjunction with a deposition, see Rule 2-510.1. For discovery of documents, electronically stored information, and property from a party to an action pending in this State, other than in conjunction with a deposition, see Rule 2-422. For inspection of property of a nonparty in an action pending in this State and for discovery under the Maryland Uniform Interstate Depositions and Discovery Act that is not in conjunction with a deposition, see Rule 2-422.1.
(c) Form. Except as otherwise permitted by the court for good cause, every subpoena shall be on a uniform form approved by the State Court Administrator. The form shall contain: (1) the caption of the action, (2) the name and address of the person to whom it is directed, (3) the name of the person at whose request it is issued, (4) the date, time, and place where attendance is required, (5) a description of any documents, electronically stored information, or tangible things to be produced and if testing or sampling is to occur, a description of the proposed testing or sampling procedure, (6) when required by Rule 2-412 (d), a notice to designate the person to testify, (7) the date of issuance, and (8) a statement that the subpoena may be served within 60 days after its issuance and may not be served thereafter. A subpoena may specify the form in which electronically stored information is to be produced.
Committee note: A subpoena may be used to compel attendance at a court proceeding or deposition that will be held more than 60 days after the date of issuance, provided that the subpoena is served within the 60-day period. The failure to serve a subpoena within the 60-day period does not preclude the reissuance of a new subpoena.
(d) Service. A subpoena shall be served by delivering a copy to the person named or to an agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service for the person named or as permitted by Rule 2-121 (a)(3). Service of a subpoena upon a party represented by an attorney may be made by service upon the attorney under Rule 1-321 (a). A subpoena may be served by a sheriff of any county or by any person who is not a party and who is not less than 18 years of age. Unless impracticable, a party shall make a good faith effort to cause a trial or hearing subpoena to be served at least five days before the trial or hearing. A person may not serve or attempt to serve a subpoena more than 60 days after its issuance. A violation of this provision shall constitute a violation of subsection (a)(3) of this Rule.
Cross reference: See Code, Courts Article, § 6-410, concerning service upon certain persons other than the custodian of public records named in the subpoena if the custodian is not known and cannot be ascertained after a reasonable effort. As to additional requirements for certain subpoenas, see Code, Health--General Article, §§ 4-302 and 4-306 (b)(6), 45 C.F.R. 164.512 regarding medical records; Code, Health--General Article, § 4-307 regarding mental health records; and Code, Financial Institutions Article, § 1-304.
(e) Objection to Subpoena for Court Proceedings. On motion of a person served with a subpoena to attend a court proceeding (including a proceeding before a magistrate, auditor, or examiner) or a person named or depicted in an item specified in the subpoena filed promptly and, whenever practicable, at or before the time specified in the subpoena for compliance, the court may enter an order that justice requires to protect the person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or cost, including one or more of the following:
A motion filed under this section based on a claim that information is privileged or subject to protection shall be supported by a description of the nature of each item that is sufficient to enable the demanding party to evaluate the claim.
(f) Objection to Subpoena for Deposition. A person served with a subpoena to attend a deposition may seek a protective order pursuant to Rule 2-403. If the subpoena also commands the production of documents, electronically stored information, or tangible things at the deposition, the person served or a person named or depicted in an item specified in the subpoena may seek a protective order pursuant to Rule 2-403 or may file, within ten days after service of the subpoena, an objection to production of any or all of the designated materials. The objection shall be in writing and shall state the reasons for the objection. If an objection is filed, the party serving the subpoena is not entitled to production of the materials except pursuant to an order of the court from which the subpoena was issued. At any time before or within 15 days after completion of the deposition and upon notice to the deponent, the party serving the subpoena may move for an order to compel the production.
A claim that information is privileged or subject to protection shall be supported by a description of each item that is sufficient to enable the demanding party to evaluate the claim.
(2) Electronically Stored Information. A person responding to a subpoena to produce electronically stored information at a court proceeding or deposition need not produce the same electronically stored information in more than one form and may decline to produce the information on the ground that the sources are not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. A person who declines to produce information on this ground shall identify the sources alleged to be not reasonably accessible and state the reasons why production from each identified source would cause undue burden or cost. The statement of reasons shall provide enough detail to enable the demanding party to evaluate the burdens and costs of complying with the subpoena and the likelihood of finding responsive information in the identified sources. Any motion relating to electronically stored information withheld on the ground that it is not reasonably accessible shall be decided in the manner set forth in Rule 2-402 (b).
Cross reference: For the availability of sanctions for violations of this section, see Rules 1-201 (a) and 1-341.
(1) Generally. A custodian of records served with a subpoena to produce records at trial may comply by delivering the records to the clerk of the court that issued the subpoena at or before the time specified for production. The custodian may produce exact copies of the records designated unless the subpoena specifies that the original records be produced. The records shall be delivered in a sealed envelope labeled with the caption of the action, the date specified for production, and the name and address of the person at whose request the subpoena was issued. The records shall be accompanied by a certificate of the custodian that they are the complete records requested for the period designated in the subpoena and that the records are maintained in the regular course of business. The certification shall be prima facie evidence of the authenticity of the records.
Cross reference: Code, Health-General Article, § 4-306 (b)(6); Code, Financial Institutions Article, § 1-304.
(2) During Trial. Upon commencement of the trial, the clerk shall release the records only to the courtroom clerk assigned to the trial. The courtroom clerk shall return the records to the clerk promptly upon completion of trial or at an earlier time if there is no longer a need for them. Upon final disposition of the action the clerk shall return the original records to the custodian but need not return copies.
Cross reference: Code, Courts Article, § 10-104 includes an alternative method of authenticating medical records in certain cases transferred from the District Court upon a demand for a jury trial.
(j) Attachment. A witness served with a subpoena under this Rule is liable to body attachment and fine for failure to obey the subpoena without sufficient excuse. The writ of attachment may be executed by the sheriff or peace officer of any county and shall be returned to the court issuing it. The witness attached shall be taken immediately before the court if then in session. If the court is not in session, the witness shall be taken before a judicial officer of the District Court for a determination of appropriate conditions of release to ensure the witness' appearance at the next session of the court that issued the attachment.
(2) Within a reasonable time after information is produced in response to a subpoena that is subject to a claim of privilege or protection, the person who produced the information shall notify each party who received the information of the claim and the basis for it. A party who wishes to determine the validity of a claim of privilege or protection that is not controlled by a court order or a disclosure agreement entered into pursuant to Rule 2-402 (e)(5), shall promptly file a motion under seal requesting that the court determine the validity of the claim. A party in possession of information that is the subject of the motion shall appropriately preserve the information pending a ruling. A receiving party may not use or disclose the information until the claim is resolved and shall take reasonable steps to retrieve any information the receiving party disclosed before being notified.
Cross reference: See Rule 19-304.4 (b) of the Maryland Attorneys' Rules of Professional Conduct. For issuing and enforcing legislative subpoenas, see Code, State Government Article, §§ 2-1802 and 2-1803.
Source: This Rule is derived as follows:
Section (a) is new but the first and second sentences are derived in part from the 2006 version of Fed. R. Civ. P. 45 (a)(1)(C); the second sentence also is derived in part from former Rule 407 a.
Section (b) is new.
Section (c) is derived from former Rules 114 a and b, 115 a and 405 a 2 (b), and from the 2006 version of Fed. R. Civ. P. 45 (a)(1)(D).
Section (d) is derived from former Rules 104 a and b and 116 b. Section (e) is derived from former Rule 115 b and the 2006 version of Fed. R. Civ. P. 45 (d)(2)(A).
Section (f) is derived from the 1980 version of Fed. R. Civ. P. 45 (d)(1), and the 2006 version of Fed. R. Civ. P. 45 (d)(2)(A).
Section (g) is new and is derived from the 2006 version of Fed. R. Civ. P. 45 (d)(1).
Section (h) is derived from the 1991 version of Fed. R. Civ. P. 45 (c)(1).
Section (i) is new.
Section (j) is derived from former Rules 114 d and 742 e.
Section (k) is new and is derived in part from the 2006 version of Fed. R. Civ. P. 45 (d)(2)(B).
[Adopted April 6, 1984, eff. July 1, 1984. Amended Feb. 10, 1998, eff. July 1, 1998; April 9, 2002, eff. July 1, 2002; Oct. 31, 2002, eff. Jan. 1, 2003; Nov. 12, 2003, eff. Jan. 1, 2004; Dec. 4, 2007, eff. Jan. 1, 2008; Oct. 4, 2013, eff. Jan. 1, 2014; March 2, 2015, eff. July 1, 2015; Sept. 17, 2015, eff. Jan. 1, 2016; Dec. 13, 2016, eff. Apr. 1, 2017; April 9, 2018, eff. July 1, 2018.]
MD Rules, Rule 2-510, MD R RCP CIR CT Rule 2-510
Current with amendments received through December 1, 2022. Some sections may be more current, see credits for details.
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