§ 1962.5. Data Standardization Requirements for 2026 and Subsequent Model Year Light-Duty Zero ...
13 CA ADC § 1962.5Barclays Official California Code of Regulations
13 CCR § 1962.5
§ 1962.5. Data Standardization Requirements for 2026 and Subsequent Model Year Light-Duty Zero Emission Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles.
(2) At least 40 percent of a manufacturer's 2026 model year PHEVs and 100 percent of a manufacturer's 2027 and subsequent model year PHEVs certified to earn vehicle values in accordance with title 13, California Code of Regulations (CCR), section 1962.4 shall meet the requirements of subsections (c)(4)(A)2., (c)(4)(A)4.c. through (c)(4)(A)4.e., and (c)(6).
(3) The phase-in percentages of subsections (a)(1) and (a)(2) shall be based on the manufacturer's projected sales volumes for all ZEVs and for all PHEVs projected to be certified to earn vehicle values in accordance with title 13, CCR, 1962.4, respectively. Manufacturers shall submit phase-in plans demonstrating compliance with these percentage requirements prior to submittal of a certification application to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) for any 2026 model year vehicle. Such phase-in plans shall include planned ZEV and applicable PHEV models, projected sales for each model, designation of which models will be complying with the applicable requirements of subsections (a)(1) or (a)(2), and calculation of the resultant phase-in percentages.
(4) A manufacturer may utilize an alternative phase-in to the required phase-in of subsection (a)(1) or (a)(2) as long as it satisfies the following two requirements: (i) the total compliance calculation for the alternative phase-in schedule according to the method below must sum to be equal to or greater than 180 by the end of the 2027 model year, and (ii) 100 percent of the manufacturer's vehicles subject to the phase-in must meet the requirements of this section in 2028 and subsequent model years. The total compliance calculation for the alternative phase-in is the percent of vehicles meeting the requirements of this section in a given model year per the phase-in plan required in subsection (a)(3), multiplied by 3 for the 2025 model year, by 2 for the 2026 model year, and by 1 for the 2027 model year, and then summed together. A manufacturer is not permitted to utilize 2024 and earlier model year vehicles to satisfy the total compliance calculation requirements of the alternative phase-in described in this subsection.
“Grid energy”, for the purposes of tracking grid energy into the battery parameters in subsection (c)(4)(D), means all energy into the battery while connected to grid power (e.g., plugged-in). Grid energy into the battery shall not include electrical losses between the grid and the battery (e.g., from onboard charger inefficiency) or energy directly used by the vehicle without first going into the battery (e.g., electricity utilized directly from before or after the on-board charger to power on-vehicle devices for cabin conditioning, charging control, etc.). For the purposes of tracking the alternating current power into the vehicle or on-board charger from off-board charging parameter in subsection (c)(4)(D), “grid energy” means all energy supplied to the on-board charger.
“Propulsion-related part” means any original equipment system, component, or part whose failure will directly impede the ability on a zero-emission vehicle to refuel or recharge the vehicle, store fuel or energy for the vehicle, propel the vehicle, including delivering torque to the wheel and tire assembly excluding the wheel and tire assembly itself, or recover or recoup vehicle kinetic energy, including components used to control, manage, or thermally manage such propulsion components. These include vehicle high voltage batteries, drive motors, wheel motors, inverters, converters, on-board charging system components, fuel cell stack components, refueling and fuel tank components, fuel cell air and fuel delivery components, regenerative braking system components, and the power electronics, electronic control units, and thermal management systems of such components and systems providing propulsion, thermal management, recharging and energy storage, conversion, and related diagnosis within the vehicle. Advanced driver assistance systems and safety-related components and systems are not considered “propulsion-related parts” for the purpose of this regulation.
“Propulsion system active” is the state where the powertrain (e.g., electric machine) is enabled by the driver (e.g., after the power button is pushed for some vehicles, remote activation to precondition the cabin) such that the vehicle is ready to be used (e.g., vehicle is ready to be driven, ready to be shifted from “park” to “drive”, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) turned on to condition cabin prior to driving). For purposes of this definition, “the state where the powertrain is enabled” does not include activations that are not driver-initiated (e.g., conditions where portions of the vehicle system wake up to perform off-board charging).
(B) The vehicle connector mounting feature shall withstand a force of 220 Newtons applied to the connector mating area in the direction of the connecting and disconnecting process without mechanical and electrical failure. It shall also withstand a force of 220 Newtons applied in all other axial directions without mechanical failure.
(E) Manufacturers may not equip vehicles with additional diagnostic connectors in the driver's side foot-well region of the vehicle interior in the area bound by the driver's side of the vehicle and the driver's side edge of the center console (or the vehicle centerline if the vehicle does not have a center console) if the additional connectors can be mated with SAE J1962 “Type A” external test equipment.
(3) Communications to a Scan Tool: For ZEVs, manufacturers shall use one of the following standardized protocols for communication to a scan tool of all required messages. Only one protocol per vehicle shall be used to report all required messages. For PHEVs subject to reporting the data parameters identified in subsection (c)(4)(A)2. in accordance with subsection (a)(2), manufacturers shall report these data using the same standardized protocol for communication to a scan tool of all required messages used by the PHEV to comply with title 13, CCR, section 1968.2(g) in lieu of the requirements of subsections (c)(2) through (c)(4) of this regulation referencing the use of SAE J1979-3.
(A) SAE J1979-3 “UDSonCAN”. The vehicle shall utilize unified diagnostic services (UDS) on a controller area network (CAN) as defined in SAE J1979-3. The vehicle shall respond to functional (i.e., broadcast) and physical (i.e., point-to-point) request messages from a scan tool in accordance with SAE J1979-3 specifications except for Service $14 (i.e., clear/reset diagnostic information) where the vehicle shall respond to functional and may respond to physical request messages from a scan tool.
(4) Required Functions: The following standardized functions shall be implemented in accordance with the specifications in SAE J1979-3 for the communication protocol used by the vehicle per subsection (c)(3) to allow for access to the required information by a scan tool. These functions and data shall be accessible by a scan tool user and scan tool without the use of any vehicle manufacturer-specific, user-specific, or tool-specific registration, authentication, authorization, login, password, certification, or other mechanism that can be used to restrict or limit user or tool access for any other reason.
(A) Data Stream: The following signals shall be made available on demand through the standardized data link connector in accordance with SAE J1979-3 and SAE J1979-DA specifications. The actual signal value shall always be reported instead of a default or limp home value that the vehicle manufacturer may have chosen to substitute in place of the actual signal by the receiving onboard electronic control for use by it or other onboard electronic control units.
a. High voltage battery pack: state of health (SOH), distance traveled since SOH last updated or reset, quantity of battery energy remaining in reserve (only required for vehicles designed to initially hold some battery capacity or energy in reserve and open up access as the vehicle or battery ages)
b. actual rate of charge occurring (e.g., kilowatt rate of grid energy into the vehicle from off-board source), maximum rate of charge the vehicle can accept in its current state (e.g., given the condition of the vehicle at the time of charging such as battery temperature and state of charge, the maximum kilowatt rate the vehicle would accept if the off-board source had unlimited power capability)
3. Additionally, for all vehicles equipped with a fuel cell system: cumulative hydrogen fuel consumed by the fuel cell system in the last 1 second, fuel cell system voltage, cumulative fuel cell system generated current for the last 1 second, and cumulative fuel cell system electrical energy (i.e., power via integration of voltage times current) generated from hydrogen for the last 1 second. Reported fuel cell system current, voltage, and electrical energy shall represent the values at the output of any boost convertor or similar power conditioning device that receives electricity from the fuel cell stack and in turn provides conditioned power to the vehicle motors, battery, or other vehicle loads.
b. For cumulative battery system current and battery system energy and for cumulative fuel cell system current and fuel cell system electrical energy, manufacturers shall use current and voltage measurements at a sampling rate of no less than 20 hertz to calculate cumulative current and power for the last 1000 milliseconds, and those cumulative values shall be updated at a minimum frequency of 1 hertz.
c. For the high voltage battery SOH parameter, manufacturers shall ensure the reported value is normalized from 0 to 100 percent and correlates to the usable battery energy for the certification range value as measured in accordance with the ZEV Test Procedure as applicable. The reported SOH parameter shall be no more than 5 percentage points higher than the SOH value that corresponds to the measured usable battery energy.
d. For vehicles designed to initially hold some battery capacity or energy in reserve and open up access as the vehicle or battery ages (e.g., to widen the minimum and maximum allowed state of charge as the battery degrades to counteract or diminish reduction in battery usable energy), manufacturers shall meet the requirements of subsection (c)(4)(A)4.c., except that the reported battery SOH parameter shall be normalized such that 100 percent reflects the usable battery energy as if the user was allowed to initially access the maximum the system is designed to ever allow (e.g., a vehicle with a new battery but with the reserve in the system artificially opened up to its maximum range of authority). Within 10 days upon request by the Executive Officer, the manufacturer shall provide software or other means for CARB to conduct verification testing to ensure the accuracy of the SOH parameter to the measured usable battery energy as required by this section. The manufacturer shall provide any physical items to CARB at the following address: Chief, Emissions Certification and Compliance Division, CARB, 4001 Iowa Ave, Riverside, California 92507, and may provide information or code electronically upon mutual agreement as provided under sections 1633.7 and 1633.8 of the Civil Code.
e. The manufacturer may limit calculation of an updated battery SOH parameter to certain usage conditions of the vehicle (e.g., only when a sequence of sufficient depth of discharge and subsequent charge event occurs) if necessary to maintain the accuracy of the data parameter within the requirements of subsection (c)(4)(A)4.c. above. However, a manufacturer may only use conditions which are technically necessary to ensure robust calculation of the battery SOH parameter, designed to ensure calculation of an updated value will occur under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal urban vehicle operation and use, and designed to ensure calculation of an updated value will occur for vehicles in a test group, on average, at least once every 4,000 miles.
1. Test Group Identification: On all vehicles, the test group designation pursuant to title 13, CCR, section 1962.4(i) used for certification to CARB standards shall be made available through the standardized data link connector in accordance with the SAE J1979-DA specifications. Only one electronic control unit per vehicle shall report the test group.
2. Software Calibration Identification: For each propulsion-related control unit that reports data required by subsections (c)(4)(A), (c)(4)(B), or (c)(4)(D), a software calibration identification number(s) (CAL ID) capable of identifying the version of software being used by the control unit(s) shall be made available through the standardized data link connector in accordance with the SAE J1979-DA specifications. A unique CAL ID shall be used for every propulsion-related calibration or software set having at least one bit of different data from any other propulsion-related calibration or software set.
2. Numerical Value Specifications: For each data parameter specified in subsection (c)(4)(D)1., the value shall be stored twice, one representing the lifetime of the vehicle and the second representing recent operation in accordance with SAE J1979-DA specifications. If any of the individual lifetime values reach the maximum value defined in SAE J1979-DA, all lifetime values shall be divided by two before any are incremented again to avoid software overflow problems.
(B) For any data collected pursuant to subsection (c)(5)(A), the manufacturer shall submit a report to the Executive Officer containing the average value and standard deviation of each collected data parameter for each affected certified test group as specified in “Data Record Reporting Procedures for Over-the-Air Reprogrammed Vehicles and Engines Using SAE J1979-2”, dated December 15, 2021, and incorporated by reference. The manufacturer shall submit a separate report for each unique calibration/software update. The manufacturer shall submit the report within 75 calendar days of the availability of the calibration/software update to affected vehicles.
(2) Selection of Test Vehicles: Manufacturers shall perform this testing every model year on one production vehicle for every unique calibration no later than 60 days after the start of normal production for that calibration. Manufacturers may request Executive Officer approval to group multiple calibrations together and test one representative calibration per group, and may provide documentation to support such request. The Executive Officer shall approve the request upon finding that the software designed to comply with the standardization requirements of subsection (c) in the representative calibration vehicle is identical (e.g., communication protocol message timing, number of supported data stream parameters) to all others in the group and that any differences in the calibrations are not material with respect to meeting the criteria in subsection (e)(3). The Executive Officer shall notify a manufacturer in writing of the approval or denial of such request within 30 days of receiving the request.
(3) Test Equipment: For the testing required in this subsection (e), manufacturers shall utilize an off-board device to conduct the testing. At least 30 days prior to conducting testing, manufacturers are required to request Executive Officer approval of the off-board device that the manufacturer will use to perform the testing. As part of their requests, manufacturers shall include data, specifications, or engineering analysis that demonstrate that the off-board device will verify vehicles' ability to perform all of the required functions in subsection (e)(4) for the specific vehicle in accordance with SAE J1979-3 specifications. The Executive Officer shall approve the request upon determining that the manufacturer has submitted such data, specifications, or engineering analysis. The Executive Officer shall notify a manufacturer in writing of the approval or denial of such request within 30 days of receiving the request.
(A) The manufacturer shall notify the Executive Officer within 30 days of identifying any vehicle that does not meet one or more of the requirements of subsection (c)(4). The manufacturer shall submit a written report describing the problem(s) identified to the Executive Officer. The written report shall include proposed corrective action to remedy the problem(s), including an implementation timeframe, for the Executive Officer's approval. Factors to be considered by the Executive Officer in approving the proposed corrective action shall include the severity of the problem(s), the ability of service technicians to access the required information, the ability of CARB to access the information needed to conduct vehicle testing, the impact on equipment and tool manufacturers, and the amount of time between identification of the problem(s) and implementation of the proposed corrective action. The Executive Officer shall notify the manufacturer in writing within 30 days of receiving the written report whether the proposed corrective action is approved.
(g) Deficient Requirements. For 2026 through 2029 model year vehicles, the Executive Officer, upon receipt of a certification application from the manufacturer, shall certify vehicles, even though said vehicles may not comply with one or more of the requirements of subsections (c)(4)(A)1., (c)(4)(A)3., (c)(4)(C), or (c)(4)(D)1., under the following conditions. The Executive Officer shall grant certification for 2026 and 2027 model year vehicles that meet at least 50 percent, 2028 model year vehicles that meet at least 70 percent, and 2029 model year vehicles that meet at least 90 percent of the total number of applicable individual requirements within subsections (c)(4)(A)1., (c)(4)(A)3., (c)(4)(C), and (c)(4)(D)1. For purposes of this calculation, each separately numbered subsection shall count as an individual requirement (e.g., (c)(4)(A)1.b., (c)(4)(D)1.g.) if it is applicable to the vehicle (e.g., (c)(4)(D)1.h. only counts as an individual requirement for fuel cell electric vehicles). The deficient requirements do not need to be included in any written report pursuant to subsection (e)(4)(D)1., provided the manufacturer submitted a list of deficient requirements as part of its certification application per CCR, title 13, section 1962.4(i)(3)(L).
(1) In addition to any other failure to meet a requirement of this section, submitting incorrect information, or failing to submit required information, is a violation of this section for which violators are subject to penalty as provided by law. Each failure to comply, including each incorrect or omitted statement in a submission to the Executive Officer is a separate violation of this section. A manufacturer is subject to penalties as provided by law, including those authorized under Health and Safety Code section 43016 and 43212, for any violations of the requirements of this section.
Note: Authority cited: Sections 38510, 38560, 38580, 39039, 39600, 39601, 39602.5, 43006, 43013, 43016, 43018, 43023, 43100, 43101, 43104, 43105.5, 43106, 43154, 43211, 43212 and 44036.2, Health and Safety Code. Reference: Sections 38501, 38510, 38560, 38580, 43006, 43013, 43018, 43023, 43100, 43101, 43102, 43104, 43106, 43154, 43211 and 43212, Health and Safety Code; Sections 1633.7 and 1633.8, Civil Code; and Engine Manufacturers Association v. State Air Resources Board (2014) 231 Cal.App.4th 1022.
1. New section filed 11-30-2022; operative 11-30-2022 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4(b)(3) (Register 2022, No. 48).
This database is current through 9/22/23 Register 2023, No. 38.
Cal. Admin. Code tit. 13, § 1962.5, 13 CA ADC § 1962.5
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