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§ 1962. Zero-Emission Vehicle Standards for 2005 through 2008 Model Year Passenger Cars, Light-...

13 CA ADC § 1962BARCLAYS OFFICIAL CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS

Barclays Official California Code of Regulations Currentness
Title 13. Motor Vehicles
Division 3. Air Resources Board
Chapter 1. Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Devices
Article 2. Approval of Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Devices (New Vehicles) (Refs & Annos)
13 CCR § 1962
§ 1962. Zero-Emission Vehicle Standards for 2005 through 2008 Model Year Passenger Cars, Light-Duty Trucks, and Medium-Duty Vehicles.
(a) ZEV Emission Standard. The Executive Officer shall certify new 2005 through 2008 model passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty vehicles as ZEVs if the vehicles produce zero exhaust emissions of any criteria pollutant (or precursor pollutant) under any and all possible operational modes and conditions. Incorporation of a fuel-fired heater shall not preclude a vehicle from being certified as a ZEV provided: (1) the fuel-fired heater cannot be operated at ambient temperatures above 40o F, (2) the heater is demonstrated to have zero fuel evaporative emissions under any and all possible operational modes and conditions, and (3) the emissions of any pollutant from the fuel-fired heater when operated at an ambient temperature between 68o F and 86o F do not exceed the emission standard for that pollutant for a ULEV under section 1961(a)(1).
A vehicle that would meet the emissions standards for a ZEV except that it uses a fuel-fired heater that can be operated at ambient temperatures above 40o F, that cannot be demonstrated to have zero fuel evaporative emissions under any and all possible operation modes and conditions, or that has emissions of any pollutant exceeding the emission standard for that pollutant for a ULEV under section 1961(a)(1), shall be certified based on the emission level of the fuel-fired heater.
(b) Percentage ZEV Requirements.
(1) General Percentage ZEV Requirement.
(A) Basic Requirement. The minimum percentage ZEV requirement for each manufacturer is listed in the table below as the percentage of the PCs and LDT1s, and LDT2s to the extent required by section (b)(1)(C), produced by the manufacturer and delivered for sale in California that must be ZEVs, subject to the conditions in this section 1962(b).
Model Years
Minimum ZEV Requirement
2005 through 2008
10 percent
(B) Calculating the Number of Vehicles to Which the Percentage ZEV Requirement is Applied. A manufacturer's volume of PCs and LDT1s produced and delivered for sale in California will be averaged for the 1997, 1998, and 1999 model years to determine the California PC and LDT1 production volume for the model year 2005 ZEV requirements. For the three-year period following model year 2005, a manufacturer's California production volume of PCs and LDT1s, and LDT2s as applicable, will be based on a three-year average of the manufacturer's volume of PCs and LDT1s, and LDT2s as applicable, produced and delivered for sale in California in the prior fourth, fifth and sixth years (e.g. 2006 to 2008 model-year ZEV requirements will be based on California production volumes of PCs and LDT1s, and LDT2s as applicable, for 2000 to 2002 model years). This production averaging is used to determine ZEV requirements only, and has no effect on a manufacturer's size determination. As an alternative to the three year averaging of prior year production described above, a manufacturer may during model year 2005 or the first model year of a subsequent three year period elect to base its ZEV obligation on the number of PCs and LDT1s, and LDT2s to the extent required by section (b)(1)(C), produced by the manufacturer and delivered for sale in California that same year. If a manufacturer elects to use this method after model year 2005 it must be used for each year of the three-year period. In applying the ZEV requirement, a PC, LDT1, or LDT2 as applicable, that is produced by a small volume manufacturer, but is marketed in California by another manufacturer under the other manufacturer's nameplate, shall be treated as having been produced by the marketing manufacturer.
(C) Phase-in of ZEV Requirements for LDT2s. The ZEV requirements for the 2008 model year, 34% of a manufacturer's LDT2 production shall be included in determining the manufacturer's overall ZEV requirement under section (b)(1)(A).
(D) Exclusion of ZEVs in Determining a Manufacturer's Sales Volume. In calculating for purposes of sections 1962(b)(1)(B) and 1962(b)(1)(C) the volume of PCs, LDT1s and LDT2s a manufacturer has produced and delivered for sale in California, the manufacturer shall exclude the number of ZEVs produced by the manufacturer, or by a subsidiary in which the manufacturer has a greater than 50% ownership interest, and delivered for sale in California.
(2) Requirements for Large Volume Manufacturers.
(A) Primary Requirements for Large Volume Manufacturers. In the 2005 through 2008 model years, a large-volume manufacturer must meet at least 20% of its ZEV requirement with ZEVs or ZEV credits generated by such vehicles, and at least another 20% with ZEVs, advanced technology PZEVs, or credits generated by such vehicles. The remainder of the large-volume manufacturer's ZEV requirement may be met using PZEVs or credits generated by such vehicles.
(B) Alternative Requirements for Large Volume Manufacturers.
1. Minimum Floor for Production of Type III ZEVs.
a. Requirement For the 2005-2008 Model Years. A large volume manufacturer electing to be subject to the alternative compliance requirements during model years 2005 through 2008 must produce, deliver for sale, and place in service in California enough 2001-2008 model-year Type III ZEVs to generate ZEV credits sufficient to meet a cumulative percentage ZEV requirement of 1.09 percent of the manufacturer's average annual California sales of PCs and LDT1s over the five year period from model years 1997 through 2001, or submit an equivalent number of credits generated by such vehicles. The manufacturer may meet up to one half of this requirement with [i] 2004-2008 model-year Type I or Type II ZEVs, provided that 20 Type I ZEVs or 10 Type II ZEVs will equal one Type III ZEV, and [ii] 1997-2003 model-year Type I or Type II ZEVs that qualify for an extended service multiplier under section 1962(f) for a year primarily during calendar years 2004-2008, provided that 33 years of such a multiplier will equal one Type III ZEV.
b. [Reserved]
c. [Reserved]
d. [Reserved]
e. [Reserved]
f. Exclusion of Additional Credits for Transportation Systems. Any additional credits for transportation systems generated in accordance with section 1962(g)(5) shall not be counted towards compliance with this section 1962(b)(2)(B)1.a.
g. Carry-over of Excess Credits. ZEV credits generated from excess production in model years 2005 through 2008 may be carried forward and applied to the 2009 through 2011 minimum floor requirement specified in 1962.1(b)(2)(B)1.b. provided that the value of these carryover credits shall be based on the model year in which the credits are used.
h. Failure to Meet Requirement for Production of Type III ZEVs. A manufacturer that, after electing to be subject to the alternative requirements in section 1962(b)(2)(B) for any model year from 2005 through 2008, fails to meet the requirement in section 1962(b)(2)(B)1.a. by the end of the specified four year period in which the model year falls, shall be treated as subject to the primary requirements in section 1962(b)(2)(A) for all model years in the specified four year period.
i. The number of Type III ZEVs needed for a manufacturer under section 1962(b)(2)(B)1. a. shall be rounded to the nearest whole number.
2. Compliance With Percentage ZEV Requirements. In the 2005 through 2008 model years, a large volume manufacturer electing to be subject to the alternative compliance requirements in a given model year must meet at least 40 percent of its ZEV requirement for that model year with ZEVs, advanced technology PZEVs, or credits generated from such vehicles. The remainder of the large volume manufacturer's ZEV requirement may be met using PZEVs or credits generated from such vehicles.
3. [Reserved]
(C) Election of the Primary or Alternative Requirements for Large Volume Manufacturers for the 2005 through 2008 Model Years. A large volume manufacturer shall be subject to the primary ZEV requirements for the 2005 model year unless it notifies the Executive Officer in writing prior to the start of the 2005 model year that it is electing to be subject to the alternative compliance requirements for that model year. Thereafter, through the 2008 model year, a manufacturer shall be subject to the same compliance option as applied in the previous model year unless it notifies the Executive Officer in writing prior to the start of a new model year that it is electing to switch to the other compliance option for that new model year. However, a large volume manufacturer that has previously elected to be subject to the primary ZEV requirements for one or more of the model years in the four year period identified in section 1962(b)(2)(B)1.a. may prior to the end of the four year period elect to become subject to the alternative compliance requirements for the full four year period upon a demonstration that it has complied with all of the applicable requirements for that period in section 1962(b)(2)(B)1.a.
(D) Use of Credits from Model Year 2003-2004 PZEVs. A large volume manufacturer may produce, and deliver for sale in California, model year 2003 or 2004 PZEVs that generate credits exceeding the number of credits equal to 6 percent of the average annual volume of 1997, 1998 and 1999 PCs and LDT1s produced and delivered for sale in California by the manufacturer. In that event, the manufacturer may use those excess credits as AT PZEV credits in the 2005 and 2006 model years.
(3) Requirements for Intermediate Volume Manufacturers. In the 2005 through 2008 model years, an intermediate volume manufacturer may meet its ZEV requirement with up to 100 percent PZEVs or credits generated by such vehicles.
(4) Requirements for Small Volume Manufacturers and Independent Low Volume Manufacturers. A small volume manufacturer or an independent low volume manufacturer is not required to meet the percentage ZEV requirements. However, a small volume manufacturer or an independent low volume manufacturer may earn and market credits for the ZEVs or PZEVs it produces and delivers for sale in California.
(5) Counting ZEVs and PZEVs in Fleet Average NMOG Calculations. For purposes of calculating a manufacturer's fleet average NMOG value and NMOG credits under sections 1960.1(g)(2) and 1961(b) and (c), a vehicle certified as a ZEV is counted as one ZEV, and a PZEV is counted as one SULEV certified to the 150,000 mile standards regardless of any ZEV or PZEV multipliers.
(6) Implementation Prior to 2005 Model Year. Prior to the 2005 model year, a manufacturer that voluntarily produces vehicles meeting the ZEV emission standards applicable to 2005 and subsequent model year vehicles may certify the vehicles to those standards and requirements for purposes of calculating fleet average NMOG exhaust emission values and NMOG credits under sections 1960.1(g)(2) and 1961(b) and (c), and for calculating ZEV credits as set forth in section 1962(g).
(7) Changes in Small Volume, Independent Low Volume, and Intermediate Volume Manufacturer Status.
(A) Increases in California Production Volume. In the 2003 through 2008 model years, if a small volume manufacturer's average California production volume exceeds 4,500 units of new PCs, LDTs, and MDVs based on the average number of vehicles produced and delivered for sale for the three previous consecutive model years, or if an independent low volume manufacturer's average California production volume exceeds 10,000 units of new PCs, LDTs, and MDVs based on the average number of vehicles produced and delivered for sale for the three previous consecutive model years, or if an intermediate volume manufacturer's average California production volume exceeds 60,000 units of new PCs, LDTs, and MDVs based on the average number of vehicles produced and delivered for sale for the three previous consecutive model years (i.e., total production volume exceeds 180,000 in a three-year period), the manufacturer shall no longer be treated as a small volume, independent low volume, or intermediate volume manufacturer, as applicable, and shall comply with the ZEV requirements for independent low volume, intermediate volume or large volume manufacturers, as applicable, beginning with the sixth model year after the last of the three consecutive model years. Requirements will begin in the fourth model year rather than the sixth model year where a manufacturer ceases to be a small or intermediate volume manufacturer in the 2003 through 2008 model years due to the aggregation requirements in majority ownership situations, except that if the majority ownership in the manufacturer was acquired prior to the 2001 model year, the manufacturer must comply with the stepped-up ZEV requirements starting in the 2010 model year.
(B) Decreases in California Production Volume. If a manufacturer's average California production volume falls below 4,500, 10,000 or 60,000 units of new PCs, LDTs, and MDVs, as applicable, based on the average number of vehicles produced and delivered for sale for the three previous consecutive model years, the manufacturer shall be treated as a small volume, independent low volume, or intermediate volume manufacturer, as applicable, and shall be subject to the requirements for a small volume, independent low volume, or intermediate volume manufacturer beginning with the next model year.
(C) Calculating California Production Volume in Change of Ownership Situations. Where a manufacturer experiences a change in ownership in a particular model year, the change will affect application of the aggregation requirements on the manufacturer starting with the next model year. The manufacturer's small or intermediate volume manufacturer status for the next model year shall be based on the average California production volume in the three previous consecutive model years of those manufacturers whose production must be aggregated for that next model year. For example, where a change of ownership during the 2004 model year results in a requirement that the production volume of Manufacturer A be aggregated with the production volume of Manufacturer B, Manufacturer A's status for the 2005 model year will be based on the production volumes of Manufacturers A and B in the 2002-2004 model years. Where the production volume of Manufacturer A must be aggregated with the production volumes of Manufacturers B and C for the 2004 model year, and during that model year a change in ownership eliminates the requirement that Manufacturer B's production volume be aggregated with Manufacturer A's, Manufacturer A's status for the 2005 model year will be based on the production volumes of Manufacturers A and C in the 2002-2004 model years. In either case, the lead time provisions in section 1962(b)(7)(A) and (B) will apply.
(c) Partial ZEV Allowance Vehicles (PZEVs).
(1) Introduction. This section 1962(c) sets forth the criteria for identifying vehicles delivered for sale in California as PZEVs. A PZEV is a vehicle that cannot be certified as a ZEV but qualifies for a PZEV allowance of at least 0.2.
(2) Baseline PZEV Allowance. In order for a vehicle to be eligible to receive a PZEV allowance, the manufacturer must demonstrate compliance with all of the following requirements. A qualifying vehicle will receive a baseline PZEV allowance of 0.2.
(A) SULEV Standards. Certify the vehicle to the 150,000-mile SULEV exhaust emission standards for PCs and LDTs in section 1961(a)(1) (for model years 2003 through 2006, existing SULEV intermediate in-use compliance standards shall apply to all PZEVs). Bi-fuel, fuel-flexible and dual-fuel vehicles must certify to the applicable 150,000-mile SULEV exhaust emission standards when operating on both fuels;
(B) Evaporative Emissions. Certify the vehicle to the evaporative emission standards in section 1976(b)(1)(E) (zero-fuel evaporative emissions standards);
(C) OBD. Certify that the vehicle will meet the applicable on-board diagnostic requirements in sections 1968.1 or 1968.2, as applicable, for 150,000 miles; and
(D) Extended Warranty. Extend the performance and defects warranty period set forth in sections 2037(b)(2) and 2038(b)(2) to 15 years or 150,000 miles, whichever occurs first, except that the time period is to be 10 years for a zero emission energy storage device used for traction power (such as battery, ultracapacitor, or other electric storage device).
(3) Zero-Emission VMT PZEV Allowance.
(A) Calculation of Zero Emission VMT Allowance. A vehicle that meets the requirements of section 1962(c)(2) and has zero-emission vehicle miles traveled (“VMT”) capability will generate an additional zero emission VMT PZEV allowance, calculated as follows:
Urban All-Electric Range
Zero-emission VMT Allowance
< 10 miles
0.0
10 miles to 90 miles
(33.8 + [0.5 x Urban AER])/35
90 miles
2.25
The urban all-electric range shall be determined in accordance with section E.3.2.1 of the “California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for 2005 through 2008 Model Zero-Emission Vehicles, and 2001 and Subsequent Model Hybrid Electric Vehicles, in the Passenger Car, Light-Duty Truck and Medium-Duty Vehicle Classes,” incorporated by reference in section 1962(h).
(B) Alternative Procedures. As an alternative to determining the zero-emission VMT allowance in accordance with the preceding section 1962(c)(3)(A), a manufacturer may submit for Executive Officer approval an alternative procedure for determining the zero-emission VMT potential of the vehicle as a percent of total VMT, along with an engineering evaluation that adequately substantiates the zero-emission VMT determination. For example, an alternative procedure may provide that a vehicle with zero-emissions of one regulated pollutant (e.g. NOx) and not another (e.g. NMOG) will qualify for a zero-emission VMT allowance of 1.5.
(C) Additional Allowances for Qualifying HEVs. The Executive Officer shall approve an additional 0.1 zero-emission VMT partial ZEV allowance for an HEV with an all-electric range if the manufacturer demonstrates to the reasonable satisfaction of the Executive Officer that the HEV is equipped with software and/or other strategies that would promote maximum use of off-vehicle charging, and that the strategies employed are reasonably reliable and tamper-proof.
(4) PZEV Allowance for Advanced ZEV Componentry. A vehicle that meets the requirements of section 1962(c)(2) may qualify for an advanced componentry PZEV allowance as provided in this section 1962(c)(4).
(A) Use of High Pressure Gaseous Fuel or Hydrogen Storage System. A vehicle equipped with a high pressure gaseous fuel storage system capable of refueling at 3600 pounds per square inch or more and operating exclusively on this gaseous fuel shall qualify for an advanced componentry PZEV allowance of 0.2. A vehicle capable of operating exclusively on hydrogen stored in a high pressure system capable of refueling at 3600 pounds per square inch or more, or stored in nongaseous form, shall instead qualify for an advanced componentry PZEV allowance of 0.3.
(B) Use of Qualifying HEV Electric Drive System.
1. Classification of HEVs. HEVs qualifying for additional allowances or allowances that may be used in the AT PZEV category are classified in one of five types of HEVs based on the criteria in the following table.
Characteristics
Type A
Type B
Type C
Type D
Type E
 
Electric Drive
>= 4 kW
>= 4 kW
>= 10 kW
>= 10 kW
>= 50 kW
System Peak
<10kw
Power Output
Traction Drive
<60 Volts
>=60 Volts
<60 Volts
>=60 Volts
>=60 volts
System Voltage
Traction Drive
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Boost
Regenerative
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Braking
Idle Start/Stop
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
2. Type A HEVs. A 2008 or earlier model-year PZEV that the manufacturer demonstrates to the reasonable satisfaction of the Executive Officer meets all of the criteria for a Type A HEV does not receive an additional allowance for meeting those criteria but generates credits that may be used in the AT PZEV category through the 2008 model year.
3. Type B HEVs. A 2008 or earlier model-year PZEV that the manufacturer demonstrates to the reasonable satisfaction of the Executive Officer meets all of the criteria for a Type B HEV qualifies for an additional advanced componentry allowance of 0.2.
4. Type C HEVs. A 2008 or earlier model-year PZEV that the manufacturer demonstrates to the reasonable satisfaction of the Executive Officer meets all of the criteria for a Type C HEV, and that is equipped with an advanced traction energy storage system - such as nickel metal-hydride batteries, ultracapacitors, or other similar systems - with a design lifetime of at least 10 years, qualifies for an additional advanced componentry allowance of 0.2.
5. Type D HEVs. A PZEV that the manufacturer demonstrates to the reasonable satisfaction of the Executive Officer meets all of the criteria for a Type D HEV qualifies for an additional advanced componentry allowance of 0.4 in the 2003 through 2008 model years.
6. Type E HEVs. A PZEV that the manufacturer demonstrates to the reasonable satisfaction of the Executive Officer meets all of the criteria for a Type E HEV qualifies for an additional advanced componentry allowance of 0.5 in the 2003 through 2008 model years.
7. Severability. In the event that all or part of section 1962(c)(4)(B)1.-6. is found invalid, the remainder of section 1962, including the remainder of section 1962(c)(4)(B)1.-6. if any, remains in full force and effect.
(5) PZEV Allowance for Low Fuel-Cycle Emissions. A vehicle that uses fuel(s) with very low fuel-cycle emissions shall receive a PZEV allowance not to exceed 0.3 (0.15 in the case of an HEV that uses for propulsion any fuel that does not have very low fuel-cycle emissions). In order to receive the fuel-cycle PZEV allowance, a manufacturer must demonstrate to the Executive Officer, using peer-reviewed studies or other relevant information, that NMOG emissions associated with the fuel(s) used by the vehicle (on a grams/mile basis) are lower than or equal to 0.01 grams/mile. Fuel-cycle emissions must be calculated based on near-term production methods and infrastructure assumptions, and the uncertainty in the results must be quantified. The fuel-cycle PZEV allowance is calculated according to the following formula:
PZEV Fuel Cycle Allowance = 0.3 x [(percent of VMT using fuel(s) meeting the requirements of the preceding paragraph) / 100]
A manufacturer's demonstration to the Executive Officer that a vehicle qualifies for a fuel-cycle PZEV allowance shall include test results and/or empirical data supporting the estimate of the relative proportion of VMT while operating on fuel(s) with very low fuel-cycle emissions.
(6) Calculation of PZEV Allowance.
(A) Calculation of Combined PZEV Allowance for a Vehicle. The combined PZEV allowance for a qualifying vehicle in a particular model year is the sum of the PZEV allowances listed in this section 1962(c)(6), multiplied by any PZEV introduction phase-in multiplier listed in section 1962(c)(7), subject to the caps in section 1962(c)(6)(B).
1. Baseline PZEV Allowance. The baseline PZEV allowance of 0.2 for vehicles meeting the criteria in section 1962(c)(2);
2. Zero Emission VMT PZEV Allowance. The zero-emission VMT PZEV allowance, if any, determined in accordance with section 1962(c)(3);
3. Advanced ZEV Componentry PZEV Allowance. The advanced ZEV componentry PZEV allowance, if any, determined in accordance with section 1962(c)(4); and
4. Fuel-cycle Emissions PZEV Allowance. The fuel-cycle emissions PZEV allowance, if any, determined in accordance with section 1962(c)(5).
(B) Caps on the Value of an AT PZEV Allowance.
1. [Reserved]
2. Cap Based on the Credit Value of a Type III ZEV. In no case may the combined AT PZEV allowance for a qualifying vehicle in a particular model year, including the baseline PZEV allowance, exceed the ZEV credits for a Type III ZEV placed in service in the same model year.
(7) PZEV Multipliers.
(A) PZEV Introduction Phase-In Multiplier. Each 2000 through 2005 model-year PZEV that is produced and delivered for sale in California, other than a PZEV qualifying for a phase-in multiplier under section 1962(c)(7)(B), qualifies for a PZEV introduction phase-in multiplier as follows:
MY 2000-2003
MY 2004
MY 2005
Multiplier
4.0
2.0
1.33
(B) Introduction Phase-In Multiplier for PZEVs That Earn a Zero Emission VMT Allowance. Each 2000 through 2008 model year PZEV that earns a zero emission VMT allowance under section 1962(c)(3) and is produced and delivered for sale in California qualifies for a phase-in multiplier as follows:
MY 2000-2008
Multiplier
6.0
(d) Qualification for ZEV Multipliers and Credits.
(1) 1996-1998 Model-Year ZEV Multipliers.
(A) 1996-1998 Model-Year ZEV Multiplier Based on Vehicle Range. 1996-1998 model-year ZEVs shall qualify for a ZEV multiplier based on vehicle range as follows:
Vehicle Range (miles)
ZEV
Model Years
Model Year
Multiplier
1996 and 1997
1998
2
any
>=100
3
>=70
>=130
Range shall be determined in accordance with section 9.f.(2)(a) of the “California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for 1988 Through 2000 Model Passenger Cars, Light-Duty Trucks, and Medium-Duty Vehicles,” incorporated by reference in section 1960.1(k).
(B) 1996-1998 Model-Year ZEV Multiplier Based on Specific Energy of Battery. 1996-1998 model-year ZEVs shall qualify for a ZEV multiplier based on specific energy of the battery as follows:
ZEV
Multiplier
Specific Energy of Battery (w-hr/kg)
2
any
3
>=40
(C) Election of Multiplier. A 1996-1998 model-year ZEV may qualify for a ZEV multiplier according to section 1962(d)(1)(A) or section 1962(d)(1)(B), but not both.
(2) 1999-2000 Model-Year ZEV Multiplier Calculation for Extended Electric Range Vehicles. Each ZEV that is produced and delivered for sale in California in the 1999 - 2000 model years and that has an extended electric range shall qualify for a ZEV multiplier as follows:
All-electric range
MY 1999-2000
100-175
6-10
ZEV multipliers under the above schedule will be determined by linear interpolation between the values shown in the above schedule. Range shall be determined in accordance with section E.3.(2)(a) of the “California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for 2005 through 2008 Model Zero-Emission Vehicles, and 2001 and Subsequent Model Hybrid Electric Vehicles, in the Passenger Car, Light-Duty Truck and Medium-Duty Vehicle Classes,” incorporated by reference in section 1962(h). ZEVs that have a refueling time of less than 10 minutes and a range of 100 miles or more shall be counted as having unlimited all-electric range, and shall consequently earn the maximum allowable ZEV multiplier for a specific model year. ZEVs that have a range of 80 to 99 miles shall qualify for ZEV multipliers in the 1999-2000 model years in accordance with the following equation:
ZEV multiplier = (6) x (AER equivalent to a 10 minute recharge/100) x 0.5.
As an option to the above mechanism, the manufacturer of a 1999 model-year ZEV may elect to have its multiplier based on the regulatory requirements pertaining to multipliers based on range or specific energy in section 1960.1(g)(2) and (h)(2). title 13, California Code of Regulations that were applicable to 1999 model-year ZEVs immediately before this section 1962 became operative on November 27, 1999 as a result of the “LEV II” rulemaking.
(3) ZEV Multipliers for 2001-2002 Model Years.
(A) ZEV Phase-In Multiplier. Each 2001 and 2002 model-year ZEV that is placed in service in California by September 30, 2003 qualifies for a ZEV phase-in multiplier of 4.0. A 2001 or 2002 model-year ZEV that is placed in service in California after September 30, 2003 earns credits in accordance with section 1962(d)(5) instead of section 1962(d)(3).
(B) ZEV Extended Electric Range Multiplier.
1. Basic Multiplier Schedule. Each 2001 and 2002 model-year ZEV that is placed in service in California and that has an extended urban electric range qualifies for a ZEV extended electric range multiplier as follows:
Urban All-Electric Range
Multiplier
< 50 miles
1
> 50 miles to < 275 miles
(Urban AER-25)/25
>275 miles
10
A NEV is not eligible to earn a ZEV extended electric range multiplier. In determining ZEV range multipliers, specialty ZEVs may, upon Executive Officer approval, be tested at the parameters used to determine the ZEV multipliers for the existing ZEV.
2. Fast refueling.
a. Full Fueling in 10 Minutes or Less. A 2001-2002 model-year ZEV with the demonstrated capability to accept fuel or electric charge until achieving at least 95% SOC or rated fuel capacity in 10 minutes or less when starting from all operationally allowable SOC or fuel states is counted as having unlimited zero emission range and qualifies for the maximum allowable ZEV extended electric range multiplier.
b. At Least 60-Mile Range in Less Than 10 Minutes. A 2001-2002 model year ZEV with the demonstrated capacity to accept fuel or electric charge equivalent to at least 60 miles of UDDS range when starting from 20% SOC in less than 10 minutes is counted as having 60 additional miles (up to a 275 mile maximum) of UDDS range in the range multiplier determination in section 1962(d)(3)(C)1.
(C) Combined ZEV Multiplier. During the 2001-2002 model years, the combined ZEV multiplier for each ZEV in a specific model year is the product of:
1. The ZEV phase-in multiplier if any as set forth in section 1962(d)(3)(A), times
2. The extended electric range multiplier if any as set forth in section 1962(d)(3)(B).
(4) Effect of ZEV Multipliers in the 1996-2002 Model Years. In calculating the number of ZEVs produced and delivered for sale in California by a manufacturer in the 1996-2002 model years and the ZEV credits from such vehicles, the number of ZEVs qualifying for a particular ZEV multiplier shall be multiplied by the combined ZEV multiplier.
(5) ZEV Credits for the 2003 through 2008 Model Years.
(A) ZEV Tiers for Credit Calculations. Starting in the 2003 model year, ZEV credits from a particular ZEV are based on the assignment of a given ZEV into one of the following five ZEV tiers:
Common
UDDS ZEV
ZEV Tier
Description
Range
Fast Refueling Capability
NEV
NEV
No minimum
N/A
Type 0
Utility EV
<50 niles
N/A
Type I
City EV
>=50, <100 miles
N/A
Type II
Full Function
>=100 miles
N/A
EV
Type III
Fuel Cell EV
>=100 miles
Must be capable of
replacing 95 miles
(UDDS ZEV range)
in <=10 minutes per
section 1962.1(d)(5)(B)
A specialty ZEV that has the same zero emission energy storage device and chassis as an existing ZEV from which it was modified may, upon Executive Officer approval, be categorized on the basis of that existing ZEV. A specialty vehicle that optimized for a particular duty cycle that conflicts with optimization for maximum vehicle range may be promoted to the next higher ZEV tier upon a determination by the Executive Officer that the specialty vehicle has ZEV componentry equivalent to the utilized by ZEVs in the next tier and would meet the requirements for the next tier if optimized for maximum range.
(B) ZEV Credits for 2003 through 2008 Model-Year ZEVs. A 2003 through 2008 model-year ZEV, other than a NEV, earns 1 ZEV credit when it is produced and delivered for sale in California. A 2003 through 2008 model-year ZEV earns additional credits based on the earliest year in which the ZEV is placed in service (not earlier than the ZEV's model year). The following table identifies the total credits that a ZEV in each of the five ZEV tiers will earn, including the credit not contingent on placement in service, if it is placed in service in the specified calendar year or by June 30 after the end of the specified calendar year.
Total Credits Earned by ZEV Type and Model Year for Production and Delivery for Sale and for Placement
Tier
Calendar Year in Which ZEV is Placed in Service
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
NEV
1.25
0.625
0.625
0.15
0.15
0.15
Type 0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
Type I
8
8
8
7
7
7
Type II
12
12
12
10
10
10
Type III
40
40
40
40
40
40
(C) Multiplier for Certain Type I and Type II ZEVs. A 2004 through 2008 model-year Type I and Type II ZEV shall qualify for a multiplier of 1.25 if it is either sold to a motorist or is leased for three or more years to a motorist who is given the option to purchase or re-lease the vehicle for two years or more at the end of the first lease term.
(D) Counting a Type III ZEV Placed in a Section 177 State. Through the 2008 model year, a Type III ZEV that is certified to the California ZEV standards and is placed in service in a state that is administering the California ZEV requirements pursuant to section 177 of the federal Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. § 7507) applicable for the ZEV's model year may be counted towards compliance with the California percentage ZEV requirements in section 1962(b), including the requirements in section 1962(b)(2)(B), as if it were delivered for sale and placed in service in California. Similarly, a 2008 and earlier model-year Type III ZEV that is certified to the California ZEV standards and is placed in service in California may be counted towards the percentage ZEV requirements of any state that is administering the California ZEV requirements pursuant to section 177 of the federal Clean Air Act, including requirements based on section 1962(b)(2)(B).
(e) [Reserved]
(f) Extended Service Multiplier for 1997-2003 Model-Year ZEVs and PZEVs With >= 10 Mile Zero Emission Range. Except in the case of a NEV, an additional ZEV or PZEV multiplier will be earned by the manufacturer of a 1997 through 2003 model-year ZEV, or PZEV with >= 10 mile zero emission range, for each full year it is registered for operation on public roads in California beyond its first three years of service, through the 2008 calendar year. For additional years of service starting earlier than April 24, 2003, the manufacturer will receive 0.1 times the ZEV credit that would be earned by the vehicle if it were leased or sold new in that year, including multipliers, on a year-by-year basis beginning in the fourth year after the vehicle is initially placed in service. For additional years of service starting April 24, 2003 or later, the manufacturer will receive 0.2 times the ZEV credit that would be earned by the vehicle if it were leased or sold new in that year, including multipliers, on a year-by-year basis beginning in the fourth year after the vehicle is initially placed in service. The extended service multiplier is reported and earned in the year following each continuous year of service. Additional credit cannot be earned after model year 2011.
(g) Generation and Use of ZEV Credits; Calculation of Penalties
(1) Introduction. A manufacturer that produces and delivers for sale in California ZEVs or PZEVs in a given model year exceeding the manufacturer's ZEV requirement set forth in section 1962(b) shall earn ZEV credits in accordance with this section 1962(g).
(2) ZEV Credit Calculations.
(A) Credits from ZEVs. The amount of g/mi ZEV credits earned by a manufacturer in a given model year from ZEVs shall be expressed in units of g/mi NMOG, and shall be equal to the number of credits from ZEVs produced and delivered for sale in California that the manufacturer applies towards meeting the ZEV requirements for the model year subtracted from the number of ZEVs produced and delivered for sale in California by the manufacturer in the model year and then multiplied by the NMOG fleet average requirement for PCs and LDT1s for that model year.
(B) Credits from PZEVs. The amount of g/mi ZEV credits from PZEVs earned by a manufacturer in a given model year shall be expressed in units of g/mi NMOG, and shall be equal to the total number of PZEV allowances from PZEVs produced and delivered for sale in California that the manufacturer applies towards meeting its ZEV requirement for the model year subtracted from the total number of PZEV allowances from PZEVs produced and delivered for sale in California by the manufacturer in the model year and then multiplied by the NMOG fleet average requirement for PCs and LDT1s for that model year.
(C) Separate Credit Accounts. The number of credits from a manufacturer's [i] ZEVs [ii] advanced technology PZEVs, and [iii] all other PZEVs shall each be maintained separately.
(3) ZEV Credits for MDVs and LDTs Other Than LDT1s. ZEVs and PZEVs classified as MDVs or as LDTs other than LDT1s may be counted toward the ZEV requirement for PCs, LDT1s, and LDT2s as applicable, and included in the calculation of ZEV credits as specified in this section 1962(g) if the manufacturer so designates.
(4) ZEV Credits for Advanced Technology Demonstration Programs. A vehicle, other than a NEV, that is placed in a California advanced technology demonstration program may earn ZEV credits even if it is not “delivered for sale” or registered with the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). To earn such credits, the manufacturer must demonstrate to the reasonable satisfaction of the Executive Officer that the vehicles will be regularly used in applications appropriate to evaluate issues related to safety, infrastructure, fuel specifications or public education, and that for more than 50 percent of the first year of placement the vehicle will be situated in California. Such a vehicle is eligible to receive the same allowances and credits that it would have earned if placed in service. To determine vehicle credit, the model-year designation for a demonstration vehicle shall be consistent with the model-year designation for conventional vehicles placed in the same timeframe.
(5) ZEV Credits for Transportation Systems.
(A) General. In model years 2001 through 2008, a ZEV, advanced technology PZEV or PZEV placed as part of a transportation system may earn additional ZEV credits, which may be used in the same manner as other credits earned by vehicles of that category, except as provided in section (g)(5)(C) below. A NEV is not eligible to earn credit for transportation systems. To earn such credits, the manufacturer must demonstrate to the reasonable satisfaction of the Executive Officer that the vehicle will be used as a part of a project that uses an innovative transportation system as described in section (g)(5)(B) below.
(B) Credits Earned. In order to earn additional credit under this section (g)(5), a project must at a minimum demonstrate [i] shared use of ZEVs, AT PZEVs or PZEVs, and [ii] the application of “intelligent” new technologies such as reservation management, card systems, depot management, location management, charge billing and real-time wireless information systems. If, in addition to factors [i] and [ii] above, a project also features linkage to transit, the project may receive further additional credit. For ZEVs only, not including NEVs, a project that features linkage to transit, such as dedicated parking and charging facilities at transit stations, but does not demonstrate shared use or the application of intelligent new technologies, may also receive additional credit for linkage to transit. The maximum credit awarded per vehicle shall be determined by the Executive Officer, based upon an application submitted by the manufacturer and, if appropriate, the project manager. The maximum credit awarded shall not exceed the following:
Type of Vehicle
Shared Use, Intelligence
Linkage to Transit
PZEV
2
1
Advanced Technology PZEV
4
2
ZEV
6
3
(C) Cap on Use of Credits.
1. ZEVs. Credits earned or allocated by ZEVs pursuant to this section (g)(5), not including all credits earned by the vehicle itself, may be used to satisfy up to one-tenth of a manufacturer's ZEV obligation in any given model year.
2. AT PZEVs. Credits earned or allocated by AT PZEVs pursuant to this section (g)(5), not including all credits earned by the vehicle itself, may be used to satisfy up to one-twentieth of a manufacturer's ZEV obligation in any given model year, but may only be used in the same manner as other credits earned by vehicles of that category.
3. PZEVs. Credits earned or allocated by PZEVs pursuant to s this section (g)(5), not including all credits earned by the vehicle itself, may be used to satisfy up to one-fiftieth of the manufacturer's ZEV obligation in any given model year, but may only be used in the same manner as other credits earned by vehicles of that category.
(D) Allocation of Credits. Credits shall be assigned by the Executive Officer to the project manager or, in the absence of a separate project manager, to the vehicle manufacturers upon demonstration that a vehicle has been placed in a project. Credits shall be allocated to vehicle manufacturers by the Executive Officer in accordance with a recommendation submitted in writing by the project manager and signed by all manufacturers participating in the project, and need not be allocated in direct proportion to the number of vehicles placed.
(6) Use of ZEV Credits. A manufacturer may meet the ZEV requirements in any given model year by submitting to the Executive Officer a commensurate amount of g/mi ZEV credits, consistent with section 1962(b). These credits may be earned previously by the manufacturer or acquired from another party, except that beginning with the 2006 model year credits earned from NEVs offered for sale or placed in service in model years 2001 through 2005 cannot be used to satisfy more than the following portion of a manufacturer's percentage ZEV obligation that may only be satisfied with credits from ZEVs:
ZEV Category
2006
2007-2008
75%
50%
This limitation applies to credits earned in model years 2001 through 2005 by the same manufacturer or earned in model years 2001 through 2005 by another manufacturer and acquired. The amount of g/mi ZEV credits required to be submitted shall be calculated according to the criteria set forth in this section 1962(g).
(A) Carry forward provisions for LVMs. ZEV credits generated from excess production in model years 2005 through 2008, including those acquired from another party, may be carried forward and applied to the manufacturer's percentage ZEV obligation that may only be satisfied by credits from ZEVs in section 1962.1(b)(2)(B)1.b. Beginning with the 2012 model year, those earned ZEV credits may no longer be used to satisfy the manufacturer's percentage ZEV obligation that may only be satisfied by credits from ZEVs, but may be used to satisfy the manufacturer's percentage ZEV obligation that may be satisfied by credits from Enhanced AT PZEVs, AT PZEVs, or PZEVs. For example, ZEV credit earned in 2008 would retain full flexibility through 2011, at which time that credit could only be used as Enhanced AT PZEV, AT PZEV, or PZEV credits.
(B) Carry forward provisions for manufacturers other than LVMs. ZEV credits generated from 2008 model year production by manufacturers that are not LVMs may be carried forward by the manufacturer producing the ZEV credit until the manufacturer becomes subject to the LVM requirements, after the transition period permitted in section 1962(b)(7)(A). When subject to the LVM requirements, a manufacturer must comply with the provisions of section 1962(g)(6)(A).
ZEV credits generated from 2008 model year production traded by a manufacturer other than a LVM to any other manufacturer, including a LVM, are subject to section 1962(g)(6)(A), applicable beginning 2008 model year (e.g., a 2008 model year ZEV credit traded in calendar year 2010 can only be applied towards the portion of the manufacturer's requirement that must be met with ZEVs through model year 2011; beginning in model year 2012, the credit can only be applied to the portion of the manufacturer's requirement that may be met with Enhanced AT PZEVs, AT PZEVs, or PZEVs).
(7) Requirement to Make Up a ZEV Deficit.
(A) General. A manufacturer that produces and delivers for sale in California fewer ZEVs than required in a given model year shall make up the deficit by the end of the third model year by submitting to the Executive Officer a commensurate amount of g/mi ZEV credits. The amount of g/mi ZEV credits required to be submitted shall be calculated by [i] adding the number of ZEVs produced and delivered for sale in California by the manufacturer for the model year to the number of ZEV allowances from partial ZEV allowance vehicles produced and delivered for sale in California by the manufacturer for the model year (for a large volume manufacturer, not to exceed that permitted under section 1962(b)(2)), [ii] subtracting that total from the number of ZEVs required to be produced and delivered for sale in California by the manufacturer for the model year, and [iii] multiplying the resulting value by the fleet average requirements for PCs and LDT1s for the model year in which the deficit is incurred.
(8) Penalty for Failure to Meet ZEV Requirements. Any manufacturer that fails to produce and deliver for sale in California the required number of ZEVs and submit an appropriate amount of g/mi ZEV credits and does not make up ZEV deficits within the specified time period shall be subject to the Health and Safety Code section 43211 civil penalty applicable to a manufacturer that sells a new motor vehicle that does not meet the applicable emission standards adopted by the state board. The cause of action shall be deemed to accrue when the ZEV deficits are not balanced by the end of the specified time period. For the purposes of Health and Safety Code section 43211, the number of vehicles not meeting the state board's standards shall be calculated according to the following equation, provided that the percentage of a large volume manufacturer's ZEV requirement for a given model year that may be satisfied with partial ZEV allowance vehicles or ZEV credits from such vehicles may not exceed the percentages permitted under section 1962(b)(2)(A):
(No. of ZEVs required to be produced and delivered for sale in California for the model year) - (No. of ZEVs produced and delivered for sale in California for the model year) - (No. of ZEV allowances from partial ZEV allowance vehicles produced and delivered for sale in California for the model year) - [(Amount of ZEV credits submitted for the model year) / (the fleet average requirement for PCs and LDT1s for the model-year)].
(h) Test Procedures. The certification requirements and test procedures for determining compliance with this section 1962 are set forth in “California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for 2005 through 2008 Model Zero-Emission Vehicles, and 2001 through 2008 Model Hybrid Electric Vehicles, in the Passenger Car, Light-Duty Truck and Medium-Duty Vehicle Classes,” adopted by the state board on August 5, 1999, and last amended December 2, 2009, which is incorporated herein by reference.
(i) ZEV-Specific Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section 1962.
(1) “Advanced technology PZEV” or “AT PZEV” means any PZEV with an allowance greater than 0.2 before application of the PZEV early introduction phase-in multiplier.
(2) “Battery electric vehicle” means any vehicle that operates solely by use of a battery or battery pack, or that is powered primarily through the use of an electric battery or battery pack but uses a flywheel or capacitor that stores energy produced by the electric motor or through regenerative braking to assist in vehicle operation.
(3) “Electric drive system” means an electric motor and associated power electronics which provide acceleration torque to the drive wheels sometime during normal vehicle operation. This does not include components that could act as a motor, but are configured to act only as a generator or engine starter in a particular vehicle application.
(4) “Neighborhood electric vehicle” means a motor vehicle that meets the definition of Low-Speed Vehicle either in section 385.5 of the Vehicle Code or in 49 CFR 571.500 (as it existed on July 1, 2000), and is certified to zero-emission vehicle standards.
(5) “Placed in service” means having been sold or leased to an end-user and not to a dealer or other distribution chain entity, and having been individually registered for on-road use by the California Department of Motor Vehicles.
(6) “Regenerative braking” means the partial recovery of the energy normally dissipated into friction braking that is returned as electrical current to an energy storage device.
(7) “Specialty ZEV” means a ZEV that is designed for a commercial or governmental fleet application, and either [i] has the same zero emissions energy storage device and chassis as an existing ZEV from which it is modified, or [ii] in the case of a vehicle that is not based on an existing ZEV platform, is optimized for a particular duty cycle, such as urban delivery service, that conflicts with optimization for maximum vehicle range.
(8) “Type 0, I, II, and III ZEV” all have the meanings set forth in section 1962(d)(5)(A).
(j) Abbreviations. The following abbreviations are used in this section 1962:
“AER” means all-electric range.
“AT PZEV” means advanced technology partial zero emission vehicle.
“DMV” means the California Department of Motor Vehicles
“HEV” means hybrid-electric vehicle.
“LDT” means light-duty truck.
“LDT1” means a light-truck with a loaded vehicle weight of 0-3750 pounds.
“LDT2” means a “LEV II” light-duty truck with a loaded vehicle weight of 3751 pounds to a gross vehicle weight of 8500 pounds, or a “LEV I” light-duty truck with a loaded vehicle weight of 3751-5750 pounds.
“LVM” means large volume manufacturer.
“MDV” means medium-duty vehicle.
“Non-Methane Organic Gases” or “NMOG” means the total mass of oxygenated and non-oxygenated hydrocarbon emissions.
“MY” means model year.
“NEV” means neighborhood electric vehicle.
“NOx” means oxides of nitrogen.
“PC” means passenger car.
“PZEV” means any partial zero emission vehicle that is delivered for sale in California and that qualifies for a partial ZEV allowance of at least 0.2.
“SOC” means state of charge.
“SULEV” means super ultra-low-emission-vehicle.
“UDDS” means urban dynamometer driving cycle.
“UF” means utility factor.
“ULEV” means ultra-low emission vehicle.
“VMT” means vehicle miles traveled.
“ZEV” means zero-emission vehicle.
(k) Severability. Each provision of this section is severable, and in the event that any provision of this section is held to be invalid, the remainder of this article remains in full force and effect.
Note: Authority cited: Sections 39600, 39601, 43013, 43018, 43101, 43104 and 43105, Health and Safety Code. Reference: Sections 39002, 39003, 39667, 43000, 43009.5, 43013, 43018, 43100, 43101, 43101.5, 43102, 43104, 43105, 43106 and 43205, Health and Safety Code.
HISTORY
1. New section filed 10-28-99; operative 11-27-99 (Register 99, No. 44).
2. Amendment of section and Note filed 5-24-2002; operative 6-23-2002 (Register 2002, No. 21).
3. New subsections (b)(5)(A)-(C) filed 6-24-2002; operative 7-24-2002 (Register 2002, No. 26).
4. Amendment of subsection (c)(2)(A) filed 9-16-2002; operative 10-16-2002 (Register 2002, No. 38).
5. Amendment filed 2-25-2004; operative 3-26-2004 (Register 2004, No. 9).
6. Amendment of section heading, section and Note filed 3-18-2009; operative 4-17-2009 (Register 2009, No. 12).
7. Amendment of subsection (h) filed 1-14-2010; operative 2-13-2010 (Register 2010, No. 3).
This database is current through 11/22/19 Register 2019, No. 47
13 CCR § 1962, 13 CA ADC § 1962
End of Document© 2019 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.