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§ 1011. Certificates.

11 CA ADC § 1011BARCLAYS OFFICIAL CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS

Barclays Official California Code of Regulations Currentness
Title 11. Law
Division 2. Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training
Article 1. General
11 CCR § 1011
§ 1011. Certificates.
(a) Professional Certificates - Peace Officers
(1) Professional Certificates - Overview
POST Professional Certificates are awarded to peace officers who achieve increasingly higher levels of education, training, and experience in their pursuit of professional excellence.
(A) The Commission-awarded certificate is a “professional” certificate pursuant to Penal Code section 13510.1, and is distinct from a “certificate of completion” which is awarded by a training presenter when an individual successfully completes a course.
(B) Attainment of the POST Basic Certificate is required [refer to subsection 1011(a)(5)].
(C) Attainment of other professional certificates is voluntary.
(2) Certificate Categories and Levels
Professional certificates for full-time peace officers are awarded by category and level.
(A) Categories
There are three categories of certificates:
1. General Certificates
2. Specialized Certificates
3. Coroners Certificates
The certificate category is based on the basic training standard completed by the individual (i.e., completion of a Regular Basic Course constitutes “General Certificates,” completion of the Specialized Investigators' Basic Course constitutes “Specialized Certificates,” and completion of both the PC 832 Course Arrest and Firearms and the Coroners' Death Investigation Course constitutes “Coroner's Certificates”). For example, if the individual works for a specialized law enforcement agency and has completed a Regular Basic Course, as well as, the other required certificate award criteria, the individual is awarded a “General” category certificate.
(B) Levels
There are six certificate levels in each category (above):
1. Basic Certificate
2. Intermediate Certificate
3. Advanced Certificate
4. Supervisory Certificate
5. Management Certificate
6. Executive Certificate
(C) Reserve Peace Officer Certificates
Professional certificates for reserve peace officers are awarded in one category and one level. Requirements for the Reserve Peace Officer Certificate are specified in subsection 1011(a)(12).
(3) Certificate Terminology and Policy
Except as noted, the following terms and policies apply to all certificate categories and levels:
(A) College Degree or College Unit Criteria
Accreditation shall be by a national or regional accrediting body that is recognized by the Secretary of the United States Department of Education. For the award of a certificate, all degrees or units:
1. Shall be issued by and recorded on the transcript of an accredited community college, college, or university; or
2. When issued by a non-accredited community college, college, or university; the degree or units shall have been accepted and recorded on the transcript of an accredited community college, college, or university.
(B) Education Units
For purposes of certificate qualifications:
1. One college semester unit equals one education unit, or
2. One college quarter unit equals two-thirds of an education unit.
(C) Training Points
For purposes of certificate qualifications:
1. Twenty (20) hours of law enforcement training are equal to one training point. Only completed courses with verifiable hours are accepted.
2. The Commission shall determine acceptable law enforcement training.
(D) Education Unit Conversions
When education units exceed the number needed to qualify for a certificate, the excess education units may be converted to training points to meet training point requirements. One education unit shall equal one training point. POST will make the conversion when it is to the advantage of the applicant.
(E) Law Enforcement Experience
Law enforcement experience described in subsection 1011(a)(3)((E)1. is accepted if it is recorded on the POST Profile in the POST database. POST may accept the experience described in subsection 1011(a)(3)((E)2., 3., and 4. when the law enforcement experience is: 1) documented on the employing department's/agency's letterhead, signed by the department head, 2) includes an attestation that the applicable requirements stated in experience categories subsection 1011(a)(3)((E)2., 3., or 4. have been met, and 3) includes the type of appointment, time base, dates of service, and types of duties performed.
1. Full-time peace officer experience that is/was with a California POST-participating department.
2. Full-time peace officer experience with a California law enforcement department that is/was not a POST-participating department, and during the time of the appointment, the law required completion of the Regular Basic Course or Specialized Investigator's Basic Course for the position held.
3. Full-time peace officer experience with an out-of-state law enforcement department that participates in its state's “POST type” program, and the “POST-type” program awarded the individual a Basic Certificate or license. The maximum credit allowed for this experience category is five years. “POST-type” means any department/agency that is a member of the International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training.
4. Full-time law enforcement experience with a federal law enforcement agency and the individual satisfactorily completed a basic law enforcement academy presented by the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) academy. The maximum credit allowed for this experience category is five years.
(F) Multiple Certificates at Same Level
Peace officers who qualify may be awarded a certificate in more than one category and at the same level (e.g., a General Basic Certificate and a Specialized Basic Certificate).
(4) Certificate Award Requirements - All Levels
Each certificate applicant, except the applicant for a Reserve Peace Officer Certificate, shall satisfy the following requirements:
(A) Employment Requirement
At the time of application, an applicant shall be employed as a full-time peace officer by a POST-participating department.
EXCEPTION: When a POST Basic Certificate is required to continue to exercise peace officer powers pursuant to Penal Code section 832.4, employment with a participating department is not required at the time of application.
(B) Basic Course Training Requirement
When applying for any level of certificate, an applicant shall have satisfied the basic course training requirement, as specified in Regulation 1005, for the applicant's current appointment.
(C) Requalification Requirement
1. Applicants for general or specialized category certificates must possess basic training that has not expired as specified in Regulation 1008(b), Basic Course Requalification Requirement.
2. Applicants for coroner's category certificates must possess Penal Code (PC) 832 Arrest and Firearms training that has not expired, as specified in Regulation 1080, PC 832 Arrest and Firearms Course Requalification.
(D) Application Requirements
An applicant (or an applicant's employing department) shall submit a completed Certificate Application, POST 2-116 (Rev 06/2014), herein incorporated by reference, along with supporting documents as follows:
1. Documentation that supports the required education and experience (i.e., official transcripts, diplomas, certificates of course completion, and proof of law enforcement experience).
2. When the units of credit are transferred from one educational institution to another, supporting documentation from all educational institutions is required.
3. Supporting documents are not required if the education and/or experience information needed to support the current certificate request is already reflected on the applicant's POST Profile. Any education or experience that is not reflected on the POST Profile must be supported as described in subsection 1011(a)(4)(D)1. and/or 2.
(5) Basic Certificate Possession Requirement
The Basic Certificate is required for:
(A) Specified Peace Officers
Pursuant to Penal Code section 832.4(b), every peace officer listed in Penal Code section 830.1(a) [except a sheriff, an elected marshal, or a custodial deputy appointed pursuant to Penal Code 830.1(c)] shall obtain the POST Basic Certificate in order to continue to exercise peace officer powers. PC 832.4 requires possession upon completion of probation, but in no case later than 24 months after appointment. However, if the department's probation period is 24 months, an additional three months is authorized.
(B) Police Chiefs/Persons in Charge
Pursuant to Penal Code section 832.4(c), as a condition of continued employment, each police chief, or any other person in charge of a local law enforcement agency, who is appointed on or after January 1, 1999, shall possess the POST Basic Certificate within two years of appointment.
(C) Peace Officers Employed by a Participating Department
Every peace officer appointed by a department participating in the POST Program shall possess the appropriate Basic Certificate within the time limits described in subsection 1011(a)(5)(A), unless an exception in subsection 1011(a)(5)(D) pertains to the officer.
(D) Exception to Basic Certificate Requirement
There are three exceptions to the Basic Certificate possession requirements specified in subsection 1011(a)(5)(A)-(C):
1. Peace officers appointed prior to the employing department's entry date into the POST Program and who are not required to possess a POST Basic Certificate pursuant to the requirements of Penal Code section 832.4, and
2. Custodial peace officers appointed pursuant to Penal Code section 830.l(c), and
3. Peace officers first appointed prior to January 1, 1974, and who have not changed departments since that date and who are not included in exceptions subsection 1011(a)(1) or (2).
(6) Basic Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of a Basic Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in subsection 1011(a)(4).
(B) Complete the current employing department's probationary period of not less than 12 months.
(C) Satisfy the minimum entry-level basic course training standard for the applicant's current position [i.e., one of the following: 1) Regular Basic Course, 2) Specialized Investigator's Basic Course, or 3) a PC 832 Course and Coroner's Death Investigation Course].
(7) Intermediate Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of an Intermediate Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in subsection 1011(a)(4).
(B) Possess or be eligible to possess the Basic Certificate.
(C) Satisfy one of the following eligibility combinations:
Degree or Education
Law Enforcement
Units
Experience
Training Points
Bachelor Degree
and
2 years
plus
0
Associate Degree
and
4 years
plus
0
45 Education Units
and
4 years
plus
45
30 Education Units
and
6 years
plus
30
15 Education Units
and
8 years
plus
15
*Excess education units may be applied towards training points on a unit-for-point basis [refer to subsection 1011(a)(3)(D).].
(8) Advanced Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of an Advanced Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in subsection 1011(a)(4).
(B) Possess or be eligible to possess the Intermediate Certificate.
(C) Satisfy one of the following eligibility combinations:
Degree or Education
Law Enforcement
Units*
Experience
Training Points
Master Degree
and
4 years
plus
0
Bachelor Degree
and
6 years
plus
0
Associate Degree
and
9 years
plus
0
45 Education Units
and
9 years
plus
45
30 Education Units
and
12 years
plus
30
*Excess education units may be applied towards training points on a unit-for-point basis [refer to subsection 1011(a)(3)(D).].
(9) Supervisory Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of a Supervisory Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in subsection 1011(a)(4).
(B) Possess or be eligible to possess an Intermediate Certificate.
(C) Complete a minimum of 60 semester units or possess an accredited degree (i.e., AA, BA, MA, etc.).
(D) Successfully complete a POST-certified Supervisory Course.
(E) Possess a minimum of two years law enforcement experience as a permanent first-level supervisor or higher.
(10) Management Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of a Management Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in subsection 1011(a)(4).
(B) Possess or be eligible to possess an Advanced Certificate.
(C) Complete a minimum of 60 semester units or possess an accredited degree (i.e., AA, BA, MA, etc.).
(D) Successfully complete a POST-certified Management Course.
(E) Possess a minimum of two years law enforcement experience as a permanent middle manager or higher.
(F) In order to be awarded both the Supervisory and Management Certificates, possess two years of law enforcement experience as a permanent first-level supervisor or higher, plus two years of law enforcement experience as a permanent middle manager or higher.
(11) Executive Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of an Executive Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in subsection 1011(a)(4).
(B) Possess or be eligible to possess an Advanced Certificate.
(C) Complete a minimum of 60 semester units or possess an accredited degree (i.e., AA, BA, MA, etc.).
(D) Successfully complete a POST-certified Executive Development Course.
(E) Possess a minimum of two years law enforcement experience as a permanent department head with the current employing agency
(F) In order to be awarded three certificates, Supervisory, Management, and Executive, or any combination of two, possess a minimum of two years experience at the levels stated in subsections 1011(a)(9)(E), 1011(a)(10)(E), and 1011(a)(11)(E) respectively, as appropriate for the award.
(12) Reserve Peace Officer Certificate Requirements
(A) Requirements
Applicants for the award of a Reserve Peace Officer Certificate shall:
1. Be currently employed as a (designated or non-designated) Level I Reserve Officer with a department participating in the POST program.
2. Have been selected in accordance with the minimum selection standards specified in Commission regulations for reserve officers.
3. Have completed a POST-certified Regular Basic Course in any delivery format.
4. Have satisfactorily completed a minimum of 200 hours of general law enforcement experience.
5. If appointed on or after January 1, 1999, but prior to June 30, 1999, shall have completed 200 hours of field training. If appointed on or after July 1, 1999, shall have completed 400 hours of field training.
(B) Application Requirements
An applicant (or an applicant's employing department) shall submit a completed Certificate Application - Reserve Peace Officer, POST 2-256 (10/2010). If the training required in subsection 1011(a)(12)(A)3. is not reflected on the applicant's POST Profile, the application shall include supporting documentation that verifies the training has been completed (i.e., a certificate of completion).
(b) Peace Officer Disqualification and Certificate Records
(1) Disqualification from Peace Officer Employment
Except as provided in subdivision (2), (3), or (4), Government Code section 1029(a) summarily states that a person is disqualified from holding office as, or being employed as, a peace officer of the state, if the person is:
(A) Convicted of a felony.
(B) Convicted in any other jurisdiction of an offense that would have been a felony if committed in California.
(C) After January 1, 2004, been convicted of a crime based upon a verdict or finding of guilt of a felony by the trier of fact, or upon the entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere to a felony. This paragraph shall apply regardless of whether, pursuant to Penal Code section 17(b), the court declares the offense to be a misdemeanor or the offense becomes a misdemeanor by operation of law. [Note: when this section applies, also review text in Government Code section 1029(b).]
(D) Charged with a felony and adjudged to be mentally incompetent by a superior court.
(E) Found not guilty of a felony by reason of insanity.
(F) Determined to be a mentally disordered sex offender pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 6300) of Chapter 2, Part 2 of Division 6 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(G) Convicted of addiction or in danger of becoming addicted to narcotics and committed to a state institution, pursuant to Section 3051 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(2) Employing Agency Responsibility
When department personnel have knowledge that a peace officer employee has been disqualified from holding office or being employed as a peace officer of the state pursuant to Government Code section 1029, the person with knowledge shall notify POST immediately. The notification shall be in writing and include as attachments copies of official documents that substantiate the disqualification.
(3) Disqualification Recorded
When a peace officer or former peace officer has been determined to be disqualified from holding office or being employed as a peace officer pursuant to Government Code section 1029, POST shall record the following admonition on the individual's POST Profile:
“THIS PERSON IS INELIGIBLE TO BE A PEACE OFFICER IN CALIFORNIA PURSUANT TO GOVERNMENT CODE SECTION 1029(a).”
If that same individual possesses a POST Basic Certificate, the Commission shall also note on the individual's POST Profile record in the “certificate section” of the record:
“THE BASIC CERTIFICATE IS NULL AND VOID.”
(4) Notification to Employing Law Enforcement Department
When POST has been officially notified through receipt of official court documents that a currently employed peace officer is ineligible to be a peace officer pursuant to Government Code section 1029(a), the Commission shall notify the law enforcement agency that employs the officer.
(5) Overturned or Reversed Convictions and Peace Officer Profile Records
An individual whose felony conviction is overturned or reversed is personally responsible for requesting an amendment of POST records. The individual desiring that his/her POST record be corrected shall:
(A) Provide POST with a written request to remove the statement(s) regarding ineligibility to be a peace officer and/or the voided Basic Certificate.
(B) Provide POST with certified court documentation that proves the felony conviction has been overturned or reversed.
(c) Professional Certificates - Public Safety Dispatcher
(1) Dispatcher Certificates
Dispatcher Certificates are professional certificates awarded in recognition of meeting specified training and service requirements. Possession of these certificates is voluntary, and is not required to perform dispatcher duties.
(2) Application Requirements
An applicant (or an applicant's employing department) shall submit a completed Certificate Application - POST Public Safety Dispatcher, POST 2-289 (Rev 06/2014), herein incorporated by reference. The application's attestation must be signed by the department head. If the training required is not reflected on the applicant's POST Profile, the application shall include supporting documentation that verifies the training has been completed (i.e., a certificate of completion).
(3) Dispatcher Basic Certificate Award Requirements
Each certificate applicant shall satisfy the requirements specified below:
(A) Be employed with a department participating in the POST Dispatcher Program.
(B) Be appointed as a full-time public safety dispatcher.
(C) Have been selected in accordance with the minimum selection requirements specified in Regulation 1018.
EXCEPTION: This requirement does not apply, if the dispatcher was appointed prior to the department's participation in the POST program.
(D) Have successfully completed a POST-certified Public Safety Dispatcher's Basic Course of no less than 80 hours.
(E) Have satisfactorily completed the current department's probationary period of at least 12 months.
EXCEPTION: Upon entry into the program, departments with a probation period of less than 12 months, when established by ordinance, charter, or memorandum of understanding, shall be granted a waiver of this requirement until a 12-month probation period can be established.
(4) Dispatcher Intermediate Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of a Dispatcher Intermediate Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in subsection 1011(c)(3) for all certificates.
(B) Possess or be eligible to possess the Dispatcher Basic Certificate.
(C) Satisfy one of the following eligibility combinations:
Degree or Education
Dispatcher
Training
Units*
Experience
Points
Bachelor Degree
and
3 years
plus
0
Associate Degree
and
5 years
plus
0
45 Education Units
and
5 years
plus
12
30 Education Units
and
7 years
plus
11
15 Education Units
and
9 years
plus
10
*Excess education units may be applied towards training points on a unit-for-point basis [refer to subsection 1011(a)(3)(D).].
(5) Dispatcher Advanced Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of a Dispatcher Advanced Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in subsection 1011(c)(3) for all certificates.
(B) Possess or be eligible to possess the Dispatcher Intermediate Certificate.
(C) Satisfy one of the following eligibility combinations:
Degree or Education
Dispatcher
Training
Units*
Experience
Points
Master Degree
and
5 years
plus
0
Bachelor Degree
and
7 years
plus
0
Associate Degree
and
9 years
plus
0
45 Education Units
and
9 years
plus
12
30 Education Units
and
11 years
plus
11
*Excess education units may be applied towards training points on a unit-for-point basis [refer to subsection 1011(a)(3)(D).].
(6) Dispatcher Supervisory Certificate Award Requirements
Applicants for the award of a Dispatcher Supervisory Certificate shall:
(A) Satisfy the requirements specified in Regulation 1018.
(B) Possess or be eligible to possess the Dispatcher Intermediate Certificate.
(C) Complete a minimum of 60 semester units or possess a degree from an accredited college.
(D) Successfully complete a POST-certified Supervisory Course. (The Dispatcher Supervisory Course is highly recommended.)
(E) Possess a minimum of two years experience as a permanent first-level Dispatcher Supervisor or higher.
(d) Professional Certificates - Records Supervisor
(1) Records Supervisor Certificate
The Records Supervisor Certificate is a professional certificate awarded to a records supervisor in recognition of meeting specified training and service requirements. Possession of this certificate is voluntary, and is not required to perform record supervisor duties.
(2) Prior to submitting an application for a POST Records Supervisor Certificate, POST shall have been notified of the records supervisor's appointment pursuant to the requirements in Regulation 1003(a)(1)(A)4.
(3) Application Requirements
An applicant (or an applicant's employing department) shall submit a completed Certificate Application - Records Supervisor, POST 2-117 (Rev 06/2014), herein incorporated by reference. The application's attestation must be signed by the department head. If the training required is not reflected on the applicant's POST Profile, the application shall include supporting documentation that verifies the training has been completed (i.e., a certificate of completion).
(4) Records Supervisor Certificate Award Requirements
Each certificate applicant shall satisfy the requirements specified below:
(A) Be currently employed with a department participating in the POST Program.
(B) Be appointed as a records supervisor as defined in Regulation 1001.
(C) Have satisfactorily completed the current department's probationary period for a records supervisor.
(D) Have completed a minimum of two years satisfactory service with the current department as a records supervisor.
(E) Be a high school graduate or have successfully passed the General Education Development (GED) test for high school graduation.
(F) Have satisfactorily completed the Public Records Act course (minimum 16 hours) and the Records Supervisor Course (minimum 40 hours).
(e) Certificates of Course Completion
(1) These certificates are awarded by training presenters to students who successfully complete a POST-certified course. The issuance of these types of certificates by training presenters are highly recommended but are not required except as specified in subsection 1011(e)(3). The certificate of course completion alone does not grant or bestow any powers on any individual who is the bearer of such a certificate.
(2) Peace Officer Powers
The combination of an appointment to a peace officer position by a law enforcement agency authorized to appoint peace officers, and the possession of a certificate of course completion for certain basic courses (e.g., PC 832 Arrest and Firearms) may bestow peace officer powers to an individual (refer to Penal Code section 832).
(3) Certificate Issuance Requirement for Specified Courses
Any presenter of a POST-certified instructor development course listed in Regulation 1070 or presenters of the Academy Director/Coordinator Workshop or Recruit Training Officer Workshop shall issue a certificate of completion to all students who successfully complete the training.
(4) Certificate Content Requirement
A certificate of completion issued by the training institution shall include:
(A) Name of the training institution
(B) POST title of the course
(C) Ending date of the course
(D) Number of hours completed by the individual
(E) POST course control number
(f) Certificate Replacement
Individuals who have lost or misplaced a professional certificate or who possess a damaged professional certificate may request a replacement. The request must be submitted on a Request for Reissuance of POST Certificate, POST 2-250 (06/2014), herein incorporated by reference, to the POST Certificates Unit.
(g) Certificate Cancellation
(1) Cancellation Reasons
POST shall cancel a professional certificate(s) for the following reasons:
(A) The certificate was obtained through misrepresentation, fraud, or
(B) The certificate was issued as a result of administrative error on the part of POST or the employing agency.
(2) Notification Requirement
Department personnel who possess information that a certificate was obtained through misrepresentation, fraud, or administrative error shall notify POST immediately.
(3) Investigation of Circumstances
The Executive Director may initiate an investigation of the circumstances under which the certificate was issued. The Executive Director has the authority to approve or deny certificate cancellation.
(4) Cancellation Appeal
An individual whose certificate has been cancelled may appeal the cancellation to the Commission.
At the Commission's discretion, a hearing shall be held either before the Commission or before a qualified hearing officer. The hearing officer shall prepare a proposed decision in such form that it may be adopted as the decision in the case. All hearings shall be conducted in conformance with the Administrative Procedures Act (Government Code.C. section 11340 et seq.). At the conclusion of the appeal hearing, the Commission shall render a decision to uphold or overturn the decision to cancel the certificate.
(5) Cancellation Recorded
When the decision to cancel is upheld through the appeal process, the POST Profile record shall indicate the appropriate reason for the cancellation.
(6) Return of Certificate
Upon notification of cancellation, the individual to whom a cancelled certificate was issued shall return the certificate to POST.
Note: Authority cited: Sections 1029, Government Code; Sections 13503, 13506, 13510(c), 13510.1, 13510.1(e), 13510.2 and 13510.7, Penal Code. Reference: Section 1031, Government Code; and Sections 832.4, 13503, 13506, 13510(c), 13510.1, 13510.3 and 13510.7(a)-(b), Penal Code.
HISTORY
1. Change without regulatory effect renumbering and amending former section 9070 to new subsections 1011(a)-(a)(15), renumbering and amending former section 9071 to new subsections 1011(b)-(b)(5)(B), renumbering and amending former section 9072 to new subsections 1011(c)-(c)(7), renumbering and amending former section 9073 to new subsections 1011(d)-(d)(6), renumbering and amending former section 9076 to new subsections 1011(e)-(e)(4), renumbering and amending former section 9077 to new subsections 1011(f)-(f)(1) and renumbering and amending former section 9078 to new subsections 1011(g)-(g)(6) filed 11-26-2012 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 2012, No. 48). For prior history, see Register 2007, No. 5.
2. Amendment of section and Note and POST Forms 2-116, 2-117, 2-250 and 2-289 (incorporated by reference) filed 8-26-2015; operative 10-1-2015 (Register 2015, No. 35).
3. Change without regulatory effect amending section and Note filed 12-9-2015 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 2015, No. 50).
4. Change without regulatory effect amending subsections (a)(4)(D)3. and (a)(5)(D)3. and footnotes to tables in subsections (a)(8)(C) and (c)(4)(C) filed 6-9-2016 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 2016, No. 24).
5. Amendment of Certificate Application - Reserve Peace Officer application form (POST 2-256) and Request for Reissuance of POST Certificate form (POST 2-250) (both incorporated by reference) and amendment of subsections (a)(12)(B) and (f) filed 6-22-2016; operative 10-1-2016 (Register 2016, No. 26).
This database is current through 11/23/18 Register 2018, No. 47
11 CCR § 1011, 11 CA ADC § 1011
End of Document© 2018 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.