§ 2704. Durability Testing Requirements.
13 CA ADC § 2704BARCLAYS OFFICIAL CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS
Barclays Official California Code of Regulations Currentness
Title 13. Motor Vehicles
Division 3. Air Resources Board
Chapter 14. Verification Procedure, Warranty and in-Use Compliance Requirements for in-Use Strategies to Control Emissions from Diesel Engines (Refs & Annos)
13 CCR § 2704
§ 2704. Durability Testing Requirements.
(a) The applicant must demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the Executive Officer, the durability of the applicant's diesel emission control strategy through an actual field or laboratory-based demonstration combined with chassis or engine dynamometer-based emission tests.
(1) A laboratory-based durability demonstration is not acceptable as the primary durability data used to support verification with an emission control group that includes on-road, off-road, or APU applications. The applicant may request that the Executive Officer consider a laboratory-based durability demonstration as secondary supporting data. In evaluating such a request, the Executive Officer may consider all relevant information including, but not limited to, the degree to which the proposed laboratory-based demonstration simulates real-world conditions and subjects the diesel emission control strategy to operating conditions that are either favorable or unfavorable for proper operation based on its design.
(2) If the applicant chooses a laboratory-based durability demonstration, an additional field demonstration will be required to demonstrate in-field compatibility (pursuant to section 2705).
(3) If the applicant has demonstrated the durability of the identical strategy in a prior verification or has demonstrated durability through field experience, the applicant may request that the Executive Officer accept the previous demonstration in fulfillment of this requirement. In evaluating such a request, the Executive Officer may consider all relevant information including, but not limited to, the similarity of baseline emissions and application duty cycles, the relationship between the emission control group used in previous testing and the current emission control group, the number of engines tested, evidence of successful operation and user acceptance, and published reports.
(b) Demonstrating Durability on an Emission Control Group Basis.
(1) If the Executive Officer determines that the applicant has requested more than one emission control group, the applicant must propose a test plan that includes one or more durability test engines and applications that are representative of the least favorable conditions (e.g., PM levels, NOx-to-PM ratios, engine size) within the requested emission control groups for the diesel emission control strategy to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the Procedure.
(2) The applicant must select an appropriate test engine and application based on the proposed emission control group. Attributes of the emission control group which determine an appropriate test engine and application include, but are not limited to:
(A) Certification category (e.g., on-road or off-road)
(B) Certified emission levels (e.g., PM levels, NOx-to-PM ratios)
(C) Certified aftertreatment (e.g., diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter)
(D) Exhaust gas recirculation (e.g., none, internal or external)
(E) Engine size (e.g., displacement, rated horsepower, exhaust flow rate)
(F) Exhaust temperature profile
(G) Vehicle or equipment usage
(H) Vehicle or equipment type (e.g., rubber-tired or crawler)
(c) Engine Selection and Sizing.
(1) Subject to the approval of the Executive Officer, the applicant may choose the engine and application to be used in the durability demonstration. The engine and application must be representative of the emission control group for which verification is sought. The applicant must identify the test engine and vehicle, if applicable, by providing the engine family name, make, model, model year, PM and NOx certification levels if applicable, and vehicle identification number. The applicant must also describe the applications for which the diesel emission control strategy is intended to be used by giving examples of in-use vehicles or equipment, characterizing typical duty cycles, indicating any fuel requirements, and/or providing other application-related information.
(2) The selected engine need not be the same as the engine used for emission testing, but if the applicant does use the same engine, the emission testing may also be used for the initial durability tests.
(3) Emissions of NO2 from the emissions test engine must not exceed 15 percent of the total baseline NOx emissions by mass. If there is a special category of engines with NO2 emission levels that normally exceed 15 percent, this requirement may be adjusted for those engines at the discretion of the Executive Officer.
(4) The diesel emission control strategy must be appropriately sized for the durability test engine(s) and vehicle(s) based on the sizing information provided in the application and must be approved by the Executive Officer. If the sizing methodology or the test unit and engine combination indicated in the test plan approval letter changes during testing or during the application review process, the application will be re-evaluated and a new test plan approval letter, which may include additional testing, must be issued by ARB before any further testing commences. Any testing conducted prior to the sizing change may be rejected at the Executive Officer's discretion.
(5) If a diesel emission control strategy includes both single and multiple filter designs, the sizing of both designs is subject to the requirements and conditions in section 2703(c)(1). Both single and multiple configurations require complete emissions and durability testing (see section 2704) unless:
(A) The multiple-filter design has only one filter per exhaust manifold,
(B) The multiple filter design involves multiple filters housed within one can. Additional testing requirements for this configuration are at the discretion of the Executive Officer.
(C) The applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Executive Officer that full testing of one configuration is worst case and therefore sufficient to support verification of the other configuration.
(d) Test Fuel.
(1) The test fuel must meet the specifications in the California Code of Regulations (sections 2280 through 2283 of Title 13), with the exception of the sulfur content or other properties previously identified by the applicant and approved by the Executive Officer. The Executive Officer may approve test fuel(s) that do not comply with sections 2280 through 2283 of Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations if the fuel(s) are determined to be, based on sound science and engineering, representative of commercially available fuel typically used for the intended application(s).
(2) If operation or performance of a diesel emission control strategy is affected by fuel sulfur content, the sulfur content of the test fuel must be no less than 66 percent of the stated maximum sulfur content for the diesel emission control strategy, unless
(A) the testing is performed with fuel containing 15 ppmw or less sulfur for verification on 15 ppmw or less sulfur diesel fuel, or
(B) the testing is performed with diesel fuel commercially available in California for verification on CARB diesel fuel (i.e., fuel meeting the specifications in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, sections 2280 through 2283).
(3) Baseline testing may be conducted with commercially available diesel fuel or diesel fuel with 15 ppmw or less sulfur. Baseline and control tests must be performed using the same fuel unless the control fuel is specified as a component of the emission control strategy.
(4) The test fuel (or batch of fuel purchased) must be analyzed using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test methods listed in Table 6 (See section 2710), which are incorporated herein by reference. At a minimum, sulfur content, aromatic content, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen content, and cetane number must be reported. The Executive Officer may ask for additional properties to be reported if evidence suggests those properties may affect functioning of the diesel emission control strategy.
(e) Service Accumulation. The durability demonstration consists of an extended service accumulation period in which the diesel emission control strategy is implemented in the field or in a laboratory accepted by the Executive Officer, with emission reduction testing before and after the service accumulation. Service accumulation begins after the first emission test and concludes before the final emission test. The pre-conditioning period required in section 2703(c) cannot be used to meet the service accumulation requirements.
(1) Minimum Durability Demonstration Periods. The minimum durability demonstration periods are shown in Table 3, below.
Table 3. Minimum Durability Demonstration Periods
50,000 miles or
TRUs, and APUs
(2) Temperature and Backpressure Measurement Requirements. For strategies that include exhaust aftertreatment, engine backpressure, exhaust temperature, and engine speed must be measured and recorded for 1000 hours or over the entire durability period (whichever is shorter). The applicant must propose a measurement and recording protocol for approval by the Executive Officer. The protocol may include, but is not limited to, measurement and recording of values once every few seconds, or higher frequency measurement with recording of averages, minima, and maxima over longer time intervals. The data must include an accurate date and time stamp that corresponds with periods of actual engine operation. Data must be submitted electronically in columns as a spreadsheet or text file or another format approved by the Executive Officer. Failure to submit in an approved format will terminate the application process.
(3) NOx Emissions Measurement Requirements. For strategies that include exhaust aftertreatment to reduce emissions of NOx, the mass emissions of NOx both upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment device must be measured and recorded for at least the first and last 100 hours of the durability period. The applicant must propose a measurement method for approval by the Executive Officer. The method may include, but is not limited to, the use of NOx sensors before and after the device. Measurements of NOx emissions must occur on at least a 1 Hertz basis. Data must be recorded as averages over time intervals no greater than 10 seconds. The data must include an accurate date and time stamp that corresponds with periods of actual engine operation. Data must be submitted electronically in columns as a text file or another format approved by the Executive Officer.
(4) Electronic System Codes. Error codes, fault codes, and high backpressure codes, as defined in the applicant's test plan approval letter, that are generated by a diesel emission control strategy's electronic control system and/or operational monitoring system during the durability demonstration must be submitted with the date and time each code occurs.
(5) Fuel for Durability Demonstrations. The fuel used during durability demonstrations should be equivalent to the test fuel, or a fuel with properties less favorable to the durability of the emission control strategy. Durability demonstrations may, at the applicant's option and with the Executive Officer's approval, include intentional misfueling events so that data on the effects of misfueling may be obtained.
(6) Industrial Safety Requirements. The installation of a diesel emission control strategy on an off-road vehicle or piece of equipment used for a durability demonstration within California must conform to all applicable industrial safety regulations (California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Division 1, Chapter 4). If all off-road durability demonstrations are conducted outside of California, at least one must conform to these regulations.
(7) Photographic Documentation. For each durability demonstration, the applicant must submit digital photographs in electronic format of the following:
(A) The vehicle or piece of equipment before installation of the diesel emission control strategy. Photographs must show:
1. The entire vehicle or piece of equipment.
2. A close-up of the location in which the diesel emission control strategy will be installed.
3. All available vehicle or equipment identification including the make, model, license plate, and vehicle number.
4. All available engine identification including the make, model, and engine label.
(B) The vehicle or piece of equipment after installation of the diesel emission control strategy. Photographs must show:
1. The entire vehicle or piece of equipment showing the diesel emission control strategy installed, if possible.
2. A close-up of the installed diesel emission control strategy.
3. All available diesel emission control strategy identification including labels and logos.
(C) For a filter-based diesel emission control strategy, the outlet face of the filter after completing the durability demonstration.
(f) Third-Party Statement for In-field Durability Demonstrations. For in-field durability demonstrations, the applicant must provide a written statement from an Executive Officer approved third party, such as the owner or operator of the vehicle or equipment used, at the end of the durability period. The statement must describe overall performance, maintenance required, problems encountered, and any other relevant comments. The results of a visual inspection conducted by the third party at the end of the demonstration period must also be described. The description should comment on whether the diesel emission control strategy is physically intact, securely mounted, leaking any fluids, and should include any other evaluative observations. The third party statement must clearly identify the demonstration engine and vehicle or equipment using a unique identifier such as a vehicle identification number and engine serial number along with the engine family name, and must provide the name and contact information of the third party.
(g) Test Cycle. Testing requirements are summarized in Table 4. Note that the same cycle(s) must be used for both the initial and final tests.
(1) On-Road Applications. The applicant must perform either chassis or engine dynamometer-based testing before beginning and after completion of the service accumulation as specified in Table 4. A minimum of three hot-start tests are required for chassis testing while a minimum of one cold-start and three hot-start tests are required for engine testing. Chassis testing requires an additional three hot-starts on a low-speed cycle as described in Section 2703(e)(1)(B)2. As indicated in Section 2703(e)(1)(B)2., the applicant may request the Executive Officer to waive the tests on a low-speed cycle. If a field durability demonstration is selected, the applicant must perform chassis dynamometer testing, or request that the Executive Officer consider engine dynamometer testing. In reviewing the request, the Executive Officer may consider all relevant information, including, but not limited to the following:
(A) Similarity of the field vehicle's engine to the laboratory engine, and
(B) Similarity of the diesel emission control system's calibration and set-up when installed on the field vehicle to that when installed on the laboratory engine.
(2) Off-road and Stationary Applications (including marine, locomotives, transport refrigeration units and auxiliary power units). The applicant must use the same cycle for the emission reduction testing as defined in Section 2703. A minimum of three hot-start tests is required. If an applicant obtained a conditional verification prior to December 31, 2008, the applicant may fulfill the emission test requirements for full verification using the same discrete mode test cycle that was used to support the conditional verification.
(h) Test Run. The requirements for emissions reduction testing are summarized in Table 4, below. Note that special pre-conditioning requirements may apply. See section 2706(a)(4) for details.
(1) The diesel emission control strategy must undergo one set of emission tests before beginning and after completion of the service accumulation. Baseline testing with test repetitions as indicated in Table 4 must be conducted before and after the service accumulation. If baseline testing after the service accumulation is not technically feasible, the applicant may request the Executive Officer to waive the requirement. If there are substantial test data from previous field studies or field demonstrations, applicants may request that the Executive Officer consider these in place of the initial emission tests.
(2) As an alternative to testing a single unit before and after the service accumulation period, the applicant may request that the Executive Officer consider the testing of two identical units, one that has been preconditioned and another that has completed the service accumulation period. In reviewing the request, the Executive Officer may consider all relevant information, including, but not limited to, the following:
(A) The effect of the diesel emission control strategy on engine operation over time. Strategies that cause changes in engine operation are likely not to qualify for this testing option.
(B) The quality of the evidence the applicant can provide to support that the two units are identical,
(C) Previous experience with similar or related technologies, and
(D) Whether the applicant is participating in the U.S. EPA verification process and has made an agreement with U.S. EPA to test two units.
(3) For strategies that include exhaust aftertreatment, engine backpressure and exhaust temperature must be measured and recorded on a second-by-second basis (1 Hertz) during at least one baseline run and each of the control test runs.
(4) For strategies that use a chemical reductant to reduce emissions of NOx from on-road or off-road applications, the amount of reductant consumed during each control test run must be measured and recorded.
Table 4. Emission Tests Required for Durability Demonstrations
Initial Test (prior to service accumulation)
Final Test (after completion of 100% of the
FTP Heavy-duty Transient Cycle
(1 cold and 3 hot-starts)
UDDS (3 hot-starts) and a
low-speed cycle per 2703 (e)(1)(B)2.
Initial Test (prior to service accumulation)
Final Test (after completion of 100% of the
NRTC, or if appropriate, a
discrete mode test cycle as required
in Section 2703(e)(2)
Steady-state test cycle from ARB
off-road regulations or another test
cycle approved by the
Discrete mode test cycles identified
in the ISO 8178 test procedure,
Part 4, August 15, 1996, Section 8.5,
Test Cycles type E “Marine applications”
40 CFR Part 92 (Subpart B)
or 40 CFR Part 1033 (Subpart F)
(i) Maintenance During Durability Demonstration. Except for emergency engine repair, only scheduled maintenance on the engine and diesel emission control strategy and re-fill of additives (if any) may be performed during the durability demonstration. If normal maintenance includes replacement of any component of the diesel emission control strategy, the time (miles, years, or hours) between component change or refill must be reported with the results of the demonstration.
(j) Functional Testing of Monitoring and Notification Systems. The applicant must demonstrate the durability of all monitoring and notification systems employed by the diesel emission control strategy. Such systems include, but are not limited to, backpressure monitors, reductant level monitors, malfunction indicator systems, and mechanisms to de-rate an engine's maximum power output. The applicant must propose test procedures to demonstrate the durability of the monitoring and notification systems on a diesel emission control strategy that has completed the service accumulation period.
(k) Performance Requirements. The diesel emission control strategy must meet the following requirements throughout the durability demonstration period:
(1) If the applicant claims a percent emission reduction, the percent emission reduction must meet or exceed the initial verified percent emission reduction level.
(2) If the applicant claims to achieve 0.01 g/bhp-hr for PM, the PM emission level must not exceed 0.01 g/bhp-hr.
(3) The diesel emission control strategy must maintain its physical integrity. Its physical structure and all of its components not specified for regular replacement during the durability demonstration period must remain intact and fully functional.
(4) The diesel emission control strategy must not cause any damage to the engine, vehicle, or equipment.
(5) The backpressure caused by the diesel emission control strategy should not exceed the engine manufacturer's specified limits, or must not result in any damage to the engine.
(6) No maintenance of the diesel emission control strategy beyond that specified in its owner's manual will be allowed without prior Executive Officer approval.
(l) Conditional Verification for Off-road and Stationary Applications. If the Executive Officer determines that the diesel emission control strategy is technologically sound and appropriate for the intended application, he may grant a conditional verification for off-road and stationary applications upon completion of 33 percent of the minimum durability period. In making this determination, the Executive Officer may consider all relevant information including, but not limited to, the following: the design of the diesel emission control strategy, filter and catalyst substrates used, similarity of the strategy under consideration to verified strategies, the intended application of the diesel emission control strategy, other relevant testing data, and field experience. Where conditional verification is granted, full verification must be obtained by completing the durability testing and all other remaining requirements. For stationary, marine, RTG crane, and TRU applications, these requirements must be completed within a year after receiving conditional verification. For off-road applications, the requirements must be completed within two years after receiving conditional verification. For the aforementioned time periods, conditional verification is equivalent to verification for the purposes of satisfying the requirements of in-use emission control regulations except as otherwise provided in section 2709. For all applications, failure to complete the requirements within the specified time may result in revocation of the conditional verification and the recall provisions of section 2709 of this Procedure. Strategies that include the use of alternative diesel fuels or fuel additives are not eligible for conditional verification.
(m) Failure During the Durability Demonstration Period. If the diesel emission control strategy fails to maintain its initial verified percent emission reduction or emission level for any reason, the Executive Officer may downgrade the strategy to the verification level which corresponds to the lowest degraded performance observed in the durability demonstration period. If the diesel emission control strategy fails to maintain at least a 25 percent PM reduction or 25 percent NOx reduction at any time during the durability period, the diesel emission control strategy will not be verified. If the diesel emission control strategy fails, requires repair or maintenance, suffers any type of component failure, or the demonstration is aborted at any point in the course of the durability demonstration period, the applicant must submit a report explaining the circumstances within 45 days of the occurrence. The Executive Officer may then determine whether to deny verification or allow the applicant to correct the failed diesel emission control strategy and either continue the durability demonstration or begin a new durability demonstration.
Note: Authority cited: Sections 39002, 39003, 39500, 39600, 39601, 39650-39675, 40000, 43000, 43000.5, 43011, 43013, 43018, 43105, 43600 and 43700, Health and Safety Code. Reference: Sections 39650-39675, 43000, 43009.5, 43013, 43018, 43101, 43104, 43105, 43106, 43107 and 43204-43205.5, Health and Safety Code; and Title 17 California Code of Regulations Section 93000.
1. New section filed 5-12-2003; operative 6-11-2003 (Register 2003, No. 20).
2. Amendment of subsection (d)(1), redesignation of portions of subsection (g) as new subsections (g)(1) and (g)(3) and new subsections (g)(2)-(g)(2)(D) filed 12-2-2004; operative 1-1-2005 (Register 2004, No. 49).
3. Amendment of subsections (b) and (g) filed 2-9-2007; operative 2-9-2007 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4 (Register 2007, No. 6).
4. Amendment of subsections (c)(1) and (d)-(d)(1), new subsections (d)(2)-(3), subsection renumbering, amendment of subsection (g)(1), new subsections (g)(4) and (j), subsection relettering and amendment of newly designated subsections (l) and (m) filed 1-20-2009; operative 2-19-2009 (Register 2009, No. 4).
5. Change without regulatory effect relettering former subsections (j)-(m) to subsections (i)-(l) filed 6-29-2009 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 2009, No. 27).
6. Amendment of subsection (a), Table 3 within subsection (d)(1) and subsections (d)(2)-(3), new subsections (d)(5)-(d)(6)(C), amendment of subsections (e) and (f)(2), Table 4 within subsection (g)(4) and subsections (j)(3) and (j)(6)-(l) and amendment of Note filed 1-18-2011; operative 2-17-2011 (Register 2011, No. 3).
7. Amendment filed 8-15-2013; operative 10-1-2013 (Register 2013, No. 33).
This database is current through 11/29/19 Register 2019, No. 48
13 CCR § 2704, 13 CA ADC § 2704
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