§ 2703. Emission Testing Requirements.
13 CA ADC § 2703BARCLAYS OFFICIAL CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS
Barclays Official California Code of Regulations Currentness
Title 13. Motor Vehicles
Division 3. Air Resources Board
Chapter 14. Verification Procedure, Warranty and in-Use Compliance Requirements for in-Use Strategies to Control Emissions from Diesel Engines (Refs & Annos)
13 CCR § 2703
§ 2703. Emission Testing Requirements.
(a) Testing on an Emission Control Group Basis.
(1) The applicant must test the diesel emission control strategy on an emission control group basis and identify the emission control group. The applicant must identify the test engines and vehicles, if applicable, by providing the engine family name, make, model, model year, and PM and NOx certification levels if applicable. The applicant must also describe the applications for which the diesel emission control strategy is intended to be used by giving examples of in-use vehicles or equipment, characterizing typical duty cycles, indicating any fuel requirements, and/or providing other application-related information.
(2) If the Executive Officer determines that the applicant has requested more than one emission control group, the applicant must propose a test plan that includes one or more emission test engines that are representative of the least favorable conditions (e.g., PM levels, NOx-to-PM ratios, engine size) within the requested emission control groups for the diesel emission control strategy to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the Procedure.
(3) The applicant must select an appropriate test engine or engines based on the proposed emission control group. Attributes of the emission control group which determine an appropriate test engine include, but are not limited to:
(A) Certification category (e.g., on-road or off-road)
(B) Certified emission levels (e.g., PM levels, NOx-to-PM ratios)
(C) Certified aftertreatment (e.g., diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter)
(D) Exhaust gas recirculation (e.g., none, internal or external)
(E) Engine size (e.g., displacement, rated horsepower, exhaust flow rate)
(b) Test Engine Requirements and Pre-conditioning.
(1) For a diesel emission control strategy that has the potential to form NO2 or other secondary emissions, the applicant must identify this potential to the Executive Officer and propose an emissions test engine accordingly. The applicant must provide detailed and comprehensive information showing how the proposed emissions test engine is an appropriate, representative test engine.
(2) The applicant may tune-up or rebuild test engines prior to, but not after, baseline testing unless rebuilding the engine is an integral part of the diesel emission control strategy. All testing should be performed with the test engine in a proper state of maintenance. Emissions of NO2 from the test engine must not exceed 15 percent of the total baseline NOx emissions by mass. If there is a special category of engines with NO2 emission levels that normally exceed 15 percent, this requirement may be adjusted for those engines at the discretion of the Executive Officer.
(c) Diesel Emission Control Strategy Requirements and Pre-conditioning.
(1) The diesel emission control strategy must be appropriately sized for the emissions test engine(s) based on the sizing information provided in the application and must be approved by the Executive Officer. If the sizing methodology or the test unit and engine combination indicated in the test plan approval letter changes during testing or during the application review process, the application will be re-evaluated and a new test plan approval letter, which may include additional testing, must be issued by the Executive Officer before any further testing commences. Any testing conducted prior to the sizing change may be rejected at the Executive Officer's discretion.
(2) If a diesel emission control strategy includes both single and multiple filter designs, the sizing of both designs is subject to the requirements and conditions in section 2703(c)(1). Both single and multiple configurations require complete emissions and durability testing (see section 2704) unless:
(A) The multiple-filter design has only one filter per exhaust manifold,
(B) The multiple filter design involves multiple filters housed within one can. Additional testing requirements for this configuration are at the discretion of the Executive Officer.
(C) The applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Executive Officer that full testing of one configuration is worst case and therefore sufficient to support verification of the other configuration.
(3) The engine or vehicle installed with a diesel emission control strategy must be operated for a break-in period of between 25 and 125 hours before emission testing. Note that special pre-conditioning requirements may apply. See section 2706(a)(4) for details.
(d) Test Fuel.
(1) The test fuel must meet the specifications in the California Code of Regulations (Sections 2280 through 2283 of Title 13), with the exception of the sulfur content or other properties previously identified by the applicant and approved by the Executive Officer. The Executive Officer may approve test fuel(s) that do not comply with Sections 2280 through 2283 of Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations if the fuel(s) are determined to be, based on sound science and engineering, representative of commercially available fuel typically used for the intended application(s).
(2) If operation or performance of a diesel emission control strategy is affected by fuel sulfur content, the sulfur content of the test fuel must be no less than 66 percent of the stated maximum sulfur content for the diesel emission control strategy, unless
(A) the testing is performed with fuel containing 15 ppmw or less sulfur for verification on 15 ppmw or less sulfur diesel fuel, or
(B) the testing is performed with diesel fuel commercially available in California for verification on CARB diesel fuel (i.e., fuel meeting the specifications in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, Sections 2280 through 2283).
(3) Baseline testing may be conducted with commercially available diesel fuel or diesel fuel with 15 ppmw or less sulfur. Baseline and control tests must be performed using the same fuel unless the control fuel is specified as a component of the emission control strategy.
(4) The test fuel (or batch of fuel purchased) must be analyzed using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test methods listed in Table 6 (See Section 2710), which are incorporated herein by reference. At a minimum, sulfur content, aromatic content, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen content, and cetane number must be reported. The Executive Officer may ask for additional properties to be reported if evidence suggests those properties may affect functioning of the diesel emission control strategy.
(e) Test Cycle. The diesel emission control strategy must be tested using the test cycles indicated in subparagraphs 1-3 below (summarized in Table 2) or with an alternative cycle(s) approved by the Executive Officer pursuant to subsection (f) below. The Executive Officer may require the applicant to conduct additional testing if such information is necessary for a complete evaluation of the control technology.
Table 2. Test Cycles for Emission Reduction Testing*
TRUs and APUs)
NRTC, or if
test cycle from
the ISO 8178
40 CFR Part 92
discrete mode test
(Subpart B) or
(1 cold-start and
cycle as required in
Part 4, August 15,
40 CFR Part
1033 (Subpart F)
approved by the
8.5, Test Cycles
type E “Marine
UDDS (3 hot-starts)
and a low-speed test
cycle per 2703
FTP = Federal Test Procedure; UDDS = Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
ISO = International Standards Organization; NRTC = Nonroad Transient Composite Cycle
(1) On-road Engines and Vehicles. For on-road diesel-fueled vehicles, the applicant may choose between engine dynamometer testing and chassis dynamometer testing, subject to the following conditions. Engine testing may be used for verification of an absolute engine emissions level or a percent emission reduction. Chassis testing may be used only to verify a percent emission reduction. The applicant may use emission test data to satisfy the durability test data requirement, but must follow the same testing option for the remaining durability tests (see Section 2704).
(A) Engine testing must consist of one cold-start and at least three hot-start tests using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) Heavy-duty Transient Cycle for engines used in on-road applications, in accordance with the provisions in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 86, Subpart N.
(B) The applicant must conduct all chassis tests in accordance with the provisions of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 86, Subpart N insofar as they pertain to chassis dynamometer testing. Chassis testing must include two separate test cycles as follows:
1. At least three hot-start tests using the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) (see Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 86, appendix I (d)).
2. Three hot-start tests using a low-speed chassis test cycle representing urban stop-and-go traffic operation. The test cycle must include a repetitive series of idling periods immediately followed by events of maximum vehicle acceleration. The applicant can propose, for Executive Officer approval, a low-speed cycle as applicable to the type of vehicle and vehicle operation for which the diesel emission control strategy is intended. The Executive Officer will provide examples (e.g., New York Bus Cycle) of appropriate test cycles upon request by the applicant during the verification process. The applicant may request that the Executive Officer waive the requirement to conduct the low-speed chassis test. In reviewing this request, the Executive Officer may consider all relevant information including, but not limited to, characteristics of the duty cycles in the emission control group and the principles of operation of the diesel emission control strategy.
3. The driver must follow the test cycles as closely as possible and must not deviate beyond the following tolerances (See Code of Federal Regulation, Part 86, Subpart M, 86.1215-85).
a. The upper limit is 4 miles per hour higher than the highest point on the trace within 1 second of the given time.
b. The lower limit is 4 miles per hour lower than the lowest point on the trace within 1 second of the given time.
c. Speed variations greater than the tolerances (such as may occur during gear changes or braking spikes) are acceptable, provided they occur for less than 2 seconds on any occasion and are clearly documented as to the time and speed at that point of the test cycle.
d. Speeds lower than those prescribed are acceptable, provided the vehicle is operated at maximum available power during such occurrences.
(C) For any diesel emission control strategy intended to reduce NOx from on-road applications, the applicant must identify and discuss the effects of elevated NOx emissions on the diesel emission control strategy (emissions of NOx that are significantly greater than certified levels are said to be elevated, and may result, for example, from the activation of an AECD that advances fuel injection timing under cruise conditions). The applicant's discussion must include effects on emission reduction performance, durability, and safety considerations, how the strategy would respond to elevated NOx emissions that do not occur at the time the strategy is calibrated, and must be supported by engineering justification and any pertinent data.
(2) Off-road Engines and Equipment (including portable engines). For off-road diesel-fueled vehicles and equipment, the applicant must follow the transient test procedures outlined in the ARB off-road regulations (California Code of Regulations, Title 13, Section 2423 and the incorporated California Exhaust Emissions Standards and Test Procedures for New 2008 and Later Tier 4 Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engines, Part I-C). For all variable speed engines, a minimum of three hot-start tests must be conducted using the Nonroad Transient Composite Cycle (NRTC).
(A) The Executive Officer may require the applicant to follow another test cycle if the Executive Officer determines that it is more representative of the in-use duty cycle of the off-road application for which the applicant seeks verification.
(B) An applicant may follow the steady state test procedure outlined in the ARB off-road regulations (California Code of Regulations, Title 13, Section 2423 and the incorporated California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for New 2000 and Later Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engines, Part I-B) only if the applicant has submitted a complete preliminary verification application by October 1, 2008 and has received a letter of notification from the Executive Officer, dated no later than December 31, 2008 that the application is complete. In addition, the applicant must submit a complete final verification application that is consistent with the terms of the approved preliminary verification application by July 1, 2010. If the applicant fails to submit a complete final verification application by July 1, 2010, the applicant must test using the NRTC.
(C) An applicant with a strategy verified after October 19, 2007 using the steady state test procedure outlined in the ARB off-road regulations (California Code of Regulations, Title 13, Section 2423 and the incorporated California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for New 2000 and Later Tier 1, Tier 2, And Tier 3 Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engines, Part I-B) must submit emissions test data using the NRTC by January 1, 2013. The Executive Officer will reassess and potentially revise the verification status of the strategy, claimed emissions reductions, and compliance with NO2 emissions requirements based on the submitted data. Appropriate testing must include a pre-conditioned unit, an aged unit, and a baseline test. If such data are not received and approved by the Executive Officer by January 1, 2013, the verification will be revoked. A verification awarded prior to October 19, 2007, is not subject to this requirement. A verification for which the Executive Officer determines the NRTC is not appropriate per section 2703(e)(2)(A) is not subject to this requirement.
(D) Applicants may request that the Executive Officer consider alternative test cycles, as described in subsection (f).
(3) Stationary Engines. For stationary, transport refrigeration unit, and auxiliary power system engines, the applicant must follow the discrete mode test procedures outlined in the ARB off-road regulations (as referenced in (2) or (2)(B) above). A minimum of three hot-start tests must be conducted using the specified test cycle. Applicants may request that the Executive Officer consider alternative test cycles and methods, as described in subsection (f).
(4) Marine Engines. For marine propulsion engines, the applicant must follow the discrete mode test procedures outlined in the ARB off-road regulations (as referenced in (2) or (2)(B) above), but use the test cycles identified in the International Standards Organization (ISO) 8178 test procedure, Part 4, August 15, 1996, Section 8.5, Test Cycles type E “Marine applications”. A minimum of three hot-start tests must be conducted using the specified test cycle. Applicants may request that the Executive Officer consider alternative test cycles and methods, as described in subsection (f).
(5) Locomotives. Applicants must follow the test procedures as specified in 40 CFR Part 92 (Subpart B) or 40 CFR Part 1033 (Subpart F) (7-1-09 Edition).
(f) Alternative Test Cycles and Methods. The applicant may request the Executive Officer to approve an alternative test cycle or method in place of a required test cycle or method. In reviewing this request, the Executive Officer will consider all relevant information including, but not limited to, the following:
(1) Test procedures specified in airborne toxic control measures adopted by the ARB, e.g. the Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Stationary Compression Ignition Engines,
(2) Similarity of average speed, percent of time at idle, average acceleration, and other characteristics to the specified test cycle or method and in-use duty cycle,
(3) Body of existing test data generated using the alternative test cycle or method,
(4) Technological necessity, and
(5) Technical ability to conduct the required test.
(g) Test Run. The number of tests indicated in Table 2 must be run for both baseline (without the diesel emission control strategy implemented) and control configurations. For strategies that include exhaust aftertreatment, engine backpressure and exhaust temperature must be measured and recorded on a second-by-second basis (1 Hertz) during at least one baseline run and each of the control test runs. For strategies that use a chemical reductant to reduce emissions of NOx from on-road or off-road applications, the amount of reductant consumed during each control test run must be measured and recorded.
(h) Emissions During Particulate Filter Regeneration Events. For any diesel emission control strategy that has a distinct regeneration event, emissions that occur during the event must be measured and taken into account when determining the net emission reduction efficiency of the system. If a regeneration event will not occur during emission testing, applicants may pre-load the diesel emission control strategy with diesel PM to force such an event to occur during testing, subject to the approval of the Executive Officer. Applicants must provide data or engineering analysis indicating when events occur on test cycles and in actual operation (e.g., backpressure data).
(i) Results. For all valid emission tests used to support emission reduction claims, the applicant must report emissions of total PM, non-methane hydrocarbons or total hydrocarbons (whichever is used for the relevant engine or vehicle certification), oxides of nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.
(1) For mobile sources, or for engines tested using an engine dynamometer, emissions must be reported in grams/mile (g/mile) or grams/brake horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr).
(2) For stationary engines, gaseous and particulate matter emissions must be reported as required by the test methods approved by the Executive Officer.
(j) Incomplete and Aborted Tests. The applicant must identify all incomplete and aborted tests and explain why those tests were incomplete or aborted.
(k) Additional Analyses. The Executive Officer may require the applicant to perform additional analyses if there is reason to believe that the use of a diesel emission control strategy may result in the increase of toxic air contaminants, other harmful compounds, or a change in the nature or amount of the emitted particulate matter.
(1) In its determination, the Executive Officer may consider all relevant data, including but not limited to the following:
(A) The addition of any substance to the fuel, intake air, or exhaust stream,
(B) Whether a catalytic reaction is known or reasonably suspected to increase toxic air contaminants or ozone precursors,
(C) Results from scientific literature,
(D) Field experience, and
(E) Any additional data.
(2) These additional analyses may include, but are not limited to, measurement of the following:
(E) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
(3) The Executive Officer will determine appropriate test methods for additional analyses in consultation with the applicant.
(l) Quality Control of Test Data. The applicant must provide information on the test facility, test procedure, and equipment used in the emission testing. For data gathered using on-road and off-road test cycles and methods, applicants must provide evidence establishing that the test equipment used meets the specifications and calibrations given in the applicable test procedures. The testing information must be approved by the Executive Officer.
(m) The Executive Officer may, with respect to any diesel emission control strategy sold, leased, offered for sale, or manufactured for sale in California, order the applicant or strategy manufacturer to make available for testing and/or inspection a reasonable number of diesel emission control strategies, and may direct that they be delivered at the applicant's expense to the state board at the Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 9528 Telstar Avenue, El Monte, California or where specified by the Executive Officer. The Executive Officer may also, with respect to any diesel emission control strategy being sold, leased, offered for sale, or manufactured for sale in California, have an applicant test and/or inspect a reasonable number of units at the applicant or manufacturer's facility or at any test laboratory under the supervision of the Executive Officer.
Note: Authority cited: Sections 39002, 39003, 39500, 39600, 39601, 39650-39675, 40000, 43000, 43000.5, 43011, 43013, 43018, 43105, 43600 and 43700, Health and Safety Code. Reference: Sections 39650-39675, 43000, 43009.5, 43013, 43018, 43101, 43104, 43105, 43106, 43107 and 43204-43205.5, Health and Safety Code; and Title 17 California Code of Regulations Section 93000.
1. New section filed 5-12-2003; operative 6-11-2003 (Register 2003, No. 20).
2. Amendment of subsections (e)(2)-(3), new subsection (f)(1) and subsection renumbering filed 12-2-2004; operative 1-1-2005 (Register 2004, No. 49).
3. Amendment of subsections (b) and (c) filed 2-9-2007; operative 2-9-2007 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4 (Register 2007, No. 6).
4. Amendment filed 1-20-2009; operative 2-19-2009 (Register 2009, No. 4).
5. Amendment of subsection (c), Table 2 within subsection (e) and subsections (e)(2)(C)-(e)(3), new subsections (e)(4)-(5), amendment of subsections (h) and (l)-(m) and amendment of Note filed 1-18-2011; operative 2-17-2011 (Register 2011, No. 3).
6. Amendment filed 8-15-2013; operative 10-1-2013 (Register 2013, No. 33).
This database is current through 11/29/19 Register 2019, No. 48
13 CCR § 2703, 13 CA ADC § 2703
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