Rule 43. Trust Accounts
Arizona Revised Statutes AnnotatedRules of the Supreme Court of ArizonaEffective: January 1, 2021
Effective: January 1, 2021
A.R.S. Sup.Ct.Rules, Rule 43
Rule 43. Trust Accounts
(a) Duty to Deposit Client Funds and Funds Belonging to Third Persons; Deposit of Funds Belonging to the Lawyer or Legal Paraprofessional. Funds belonging in whole or in part to a client or third person in connection with a representation shall be kept separate and apart from the lawyer's or legal paraprofessional's personal and business accounts. All such funds shall be deposited into one or more trust accounts that are labeled as such. The location of the trust account shall be controlled by the provisions of ER 1.15(a). No trust account required by this rule may have overdraft protection. No funds belonging to the lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or firm shall be deposited into a trust account established pursuant to this rule except as follows:
3. Earned fees and funds for reimbursement of costs or expenses may be deposited into a trust account if they are part of a single credit card transaction that also includes the payment of advance fees, costs or expenses and the lawyer does not use a credit card processing service that permits the lawyer or legal paraprofessional to direct such funds to the lawyer's or legal paraprofessional's separate business account. Any such earned fees and funds for reimbursement of costs or expenses must be withdrawn from the trust account within a reasonable time after deposit.
4. Funds belonging in part to a client or third person and in part presently or potentially to the lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or firm must be deposited therein, but the portion belonging to the lawyer, or legal paraprofessional, or firm must be withdrawn when due and legally available from the financial institution, or within a reasonable time thereafter, unless the right of the lawyer or firm to receive it is disputed by the client or third person, in which event the lawyer or legal paraprofessional shall comply with ER 1.15(e).
A. Every active and affiliate member of the state bar shall maintain, on a current basis, complete records of the handling, maintenance and disposition of all funds, securities and other property belonging in whole or in part to a client or third person in connection with a representation. These records shall include the records required by ER 1.15 and cover the entire time from receipt to the time of final disposition by the lawyer or legal paraprofessional of all such funds, securities and other property. The lawyer or legal paraprofessional shall preserve these records for a period of five years after termination of the representation.
D. A lawyer or legal paraprofessional shall retain, in accordance with this rule, all trust account bank statements, cancelled pre-numbered checks (unless recorded on microfilm or stored electronically by a bank or other financial institution that maintains such records for the length of time required by this rule), other evidence of disbursements, duplicate deposit slips or the equivalent (which shall be sufficiently detailed to identify each item), client ledgers, trust account general ledger or register, and reports to clients.
B. within three business days of receipt of notice or actual knowledge that a chargeback has been made, the lawyer deposits into the trust account his or her own funds in an amount equal to the amount of the chargeback that exceeds the client's credit card funds remaining in the trust account, and any fees or charges associated with the chargeback; and
4. Disbursement Against Uncollected Funds. A lawyer or legal paraprofessional generally may not use, endanger, or encumber money held in trust for a client or third person without the permission of the owner given after full disclosure of the circumstances. Except for disbursements based upon any of the four categories of limited-risk uncollected deposits enumerated in paragraph A below, a lawyer or legal paraprofessional may not disburse funds held in trust unless the funds are collected funds. For purposes of this provision, “collected funds” means funds deposited, finally settled by the issuer's bank, and credited without recourse to the lawyer's or legal paraprofessional's trust account.
A. Certain categories of trust account deposits are considered to carry a limited and acceptable risk of failure so that disbursements of trust account funds may be made in reliance on such deposits without disclosure to and permission of clients and third persons owning trust account funds that may be affected by such disbursements. Notwithstanding that a deposit made to the lawyer's or legal paraprofessional's trust account has not been finally settled and credited to the account, the lawyer or legal paraprofessional may disburse funds from the trust account in reliance on such deposit under any of the following circumstances, if the lawyer or legal paraprofessional has other sources of funds, other than client or third party funds, available at the time of disbursement to replace any uncollected funds:
In any of the above circumstances, a lawyer's or legal paraprofessional's disbursement of funds from a trust account in reliance on deposits that are not yet collected funds is at the risk of the lawyer or legal paraprofessional making the disbursement. If any of the deposits fail, for any reason, the lawyer or legal paraprofessional, upon receipt of notice or actual knowledge of the failure, must immediately act to protect the property of the lawyer's or legal paraprofessional's clients and third persons. If the lawyer or legal paraprofessional accepting any such check personally pays the amount of any failed deposit within three business days of receipt of notice that the deposit has failed, the lawyer or legal paraprofessional will not be considered to have committed professional misconduct based upon the disbursement of uncollected funds.
B. A lawyer's or legal paraprofessional's disbursement of funds from a trust account in reliance on deposits that are not yet collected funds in any circumstances other than those four categories set forth above, when it results in funds of clients or third persons being used, endangered, or encumbered, will be grounds for a finding of professional misconduct.
5. Methods of Disbursement. All trust account disbursements shall be made by pre-numbered check or by electronic transfer, provided the lawyer or legal paraprofessional maintains a record of such disbursements in accordance with the requirements of this rule. All instruments of disbursement shall be identified as a disbursement from a trust account.
(c) Certificate of Compliance. Every active and affiliate member of the state bar shall on or before February 1 of each year file with the board a certificate certifying compliance with the provisions of this rule and ER 1.15 of the Arizona Rules of Professional Conduct, or that he or she is exempt from the provisions of this rule and ER 1.15. The certificate of compliance shall state as follows:
Annual Certificate of Compliance
I have read Rule 43, Rules of the Supreme Court, and ER 1.15, Arizona Rules of Professional Conduct, and certify that I am in compliance with the provisions thereof, or am exempt from such provisions as therein provided.
Type or print name:
As an alternative to filing a written certificate, the board may allow certification to be filed electronically in a method and form as approved by the board.
1. Authority. The state bar shall evaluate all information coming to its attention by charge or otherwise indicating a possible violation of the trust account rules, and such information shall be treated and processed as is any other charge against a lawyer or legal paraprofessional. In addition to trust account examinations that shall be conducted based upon information coming to the bar's attention, the state bar may also conduct random trust account examinations of any member's trust account(s), in accordance with Guidelines developed by the Board of Governors and approved by the supreme court.
2. Scope of Examination. The state bar may verify all funds, securities and other property held in trust by the member, and all related accounts, safe deposit boxes, and any other form of maintaining trust funds, securities or property, together with deposit slips, cancelled checks, and all other records pertaining to transactions concerning trust funds, securities and property.
3. Rebuttable Presumption. If a lawyer or legal paraprofessional fails to maintain trust account records required by this rule or ER 1.15, or fails to provide trust account records to the state bar upon request or as ordered by a panelist, a hearing officer, the commission or the court, there is a rebuttable presumption that the lawyer or legal paraprofessional failed to properly safeguard client or third person's funds or property, as required by this rule and ER 1.15.
4. Limited Exception for Out-of-State Members. All funds, securities and other property of clients and third persons held by an Arizona-licensed lawyer or legal paraprofessional whose office is situated in another state shall not be subject to investigation, examination or verification except to the extent such funds and property are related to matters affecting Arizona clients.
5. Trust Account Examination and Verification Expenses. A member whose trust account has been examined or verified pursuant to this rule shall not be responsible for the costs and expenses related to the examination or verification, unless such costs and expenses are imposed pursuant to an order of diversion as set forth in Rule 55(a) or in conjunction with imposition of a disciplinary sanction as set forth in Rule 54(b) or Rule 60(b).
(e) Confidentiality. The provisions of Rule 70(b) of these rules shall apply to records acquired during examinations conducted pursuant to this rule. In those instances where the state bar conducts a random examination of a member's trust account(s) that does not result in a disciplinary charge, all information received as a result of that examination shall be kept strictly confidential and shall not be released to any person(s).
B. a separate interest-bearing or dividend-earning trust account for the particular client or client's matter on which the interest or dividends, net of any reasonable service or other charges or fees imposed by the financial institution or investment company in connection with the account, will be paid to the client; or
C. a pooled interest-bearing or dividend-earning trust account, with subaccounting provided by the lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or the firm, which will provide for computation of interest or dividends earned by each client's funds and the payment thereof, net of any reasonable service or other charges or fees imposed by the financial institution or investment company in connection with the account, to the client.
Funds should be deposited in an IOLTA account as provided for in section (f)(1)(A) if the interest does not cover the cost of opening and maintaining a separate interest-bearing or dividend-earning account. The State Bar shall not pursue a disciplinary matter against any lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or firm solely based on the good-faith determination of the appropriate account in which to deposit or invest client funds.
3. A lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or firm must maintain any client trust account provided for in section (f)(1) only at a regulated financial institution, which is either (i) a financial institution authorized by federal or state law to take deposits and conduct financial transactions with Arizona lawyers or legal paraprofessionals and is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any successor insurance corporation(s) established by federal or state laws or (ii) any open-ended investment company registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission that is authorized by federal or state law to take deposits and conduct financial transactions with Arizona lawyers. A regulated financial institution must agree to comply with the requirements of section (f)(4) below and agree to pay IOLTA interest to the Foundation. The lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or firm must ensure that:
A daily financial institution repurchase agreement may be established only with a regulated institution that is “well capitalized” or “adequately capitalized” as those terms are defined by applicable federal statutes and regulations. An open-end money-market fund must be invested solely in U.S. Government Securities or repurchase agreements fully collateralized by U.S. Government Securities, must hold itself out as a “money-market fund” as that term is defined by federal statutes and regulations under the Investment Company Act of 1940, and at the time of the investment must have total assets of at least $250,000,000. “U.S. Government Securities” refers to U.S. Treasury obligations and obligations issued or guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof.
D. The financial institution sends notification immediately to the State Bar chief bar counsel of any properly payable instrument that is presented for payment against a client trust account containing insufficient funds, uncollectible funds, or a negative available balance, regardless of whether the financial institution honors the instrument. All occurrences shall be reported to the State Bar regardless of the cause.
If a financial institution ceases to operate as a regulated financial institution and has no successor operating as a regulated financial institution, a lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or firm that maintains an account listed under section (f)(1) at that financial institution must, upon receiving notice of the financial institution's change in status, promptly notify any clients whose funds may be affected by the change in status, promptly transfer, to the extent possible, any client trust account funds from that financial institution into another account provided for in section (f)(1), and promptly deposit into the other account provided for in section (f)(1) any insurance, collateral, or proceeds resulting from the financial institution's change in status.
4. In addition to the requirements of section (f)(3), a lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or firm may only maintain an IOLTA account as provided for in section (f)(1)(A) at an authorized regulated financial institution. To be designated as authorized, a regulated financial institution must sign a participation certification before the fiscal year beginning July 1, with the State Bar as representative of its members, and the Foundation as a third-party beneficiary and administrator of the interest or dividends.
iii. provide that the financial institution transmit, with each remittance to the Foundation, a statement, as directed by the Foundation, showing information including the name of the lawyer, legal paraprofessional, or firm on whose account the remittance is sent, the period for the remittance submitted, the account number, the account status, the rate of interest applied or the dividends earned, and the charges imposed against the interest remitted;
5. If the State Bar and the Foundation become aware of information indicating that an authorized regulated financial institution has not complied with the duties provided for in section (f), the State Bar shall notify the regulated financial institution of its failure to comply and that it has 90 days to cure its noncompliance.
(h) Suspension of Member. Any active or affiliate member who fails to comply with requirements of this rule shall be suspended summarily by order of the board upon notice by the state bar pursuant to Rule 62(a)(4), provided that a notice by certified, return receipt mail of such non-compliance shall have been sent to the member, mailed to the member's last address of record in the state bar office at least thirty days prior to such suspension.
(j) Applicability of Rule. Every lawyer admitted to practice law in Arizona or legal paraprofessional shall comply with the provisions of this rule regarding funds received, disbursed or held in Arizona, and funds received, disbursed or held on behalf of an Arizona client or a third person in connection with the representation of an Arizona client.
Amended April 26, 1994, effective June 1, 1994; April 27, 1998, effective July 1, 1998. Amended and effective Oct. 6, 2000. Amended June 9, 2003, effective Dec. 1, 2003; Sept. 16, 2008, effective Jan. 1, 2009. Amended on emergency basis effective Jan. 1, 2009. Adopted on a permanent basis and amended effective Sept. 3, 2009. Amended Sept. 2, 2010, effective Jan. 1, 2011; Sept. 1, 2011, effective July 1, 2012; Aug. 27, 2020, effective Jan. 1, 2021.
17A Pt. 2 A. R. S. Sup. Ct. Rules, Rule 43, AZ ST S CT Rule 43
State Court Rules are current with amendments received and effective through September 15, 2023. The Code of Judicial Administration is current with amendments received through September 15, 2023.
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